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10.1: Appendix A

  • Page ID
    44513
  • Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Atomic Mass of Common Elements Referred to Carbon-121.

    Element Symbol Atomic mass, g/mol
    Aluminum Al 26.9815
    Antimony Sb 121.75
    Argon Ar 39.948
    Arsenic As 74.9216
    Barium Ba 137.34
    Beryllium Be 9.0122
    Bismuth Bi 208.980
    Boron B 10.811
    Bromine Br 79.904
    Cadmium Cd 112.40
    Calcium Ca 40.08
    Carbon C 12.01
    Cerium Ce 140.12
    Cesium Cs 132.905
    Chlorine Cl 35.453
    Chromium Cr 51.996
    Cobalt Co 58.9332
    Copper Cu 63.546
    Fluorine F 18.9984
    Gallium Ga 69.72
    Germanium Ge 72.59
    Gold Au 196.967
    Hafnium Hf 178.49
    Helium He 4.0026
    Hydrogen H 1.00797
    Indium In 114.82
    Iodine I 126.9044
    Iridium Ir 192.2
    Iron Fe 55.847
    Krypton Kr 83.80
    Lead Pb 207.19
    Lithium Li 6.939
    Magnesium Mg 24.312
    Manganese Mn 54.938
    Mercury Hg 200.59
    Molybdenum Mo 95.94
    Neon Ne 20.183
    Nickel Ni 58.71
    Niobium Nb 92.906
    Nitrogen N 14.0067
    Oxygen O 15.9994
    Palladium Pd 106.4
    Phosphorus P 30.9738
    Platinum Pt 195.09
    Plutonium Pu 242
    Potassium K 39.102
    Radium Ra 226
    Radon Rn 222
    Rhodium Rh 102.905
    Rubidium Rb 85.47
    Selenium Se 78.96
    Silicon Si 28.086
    Silver Ag 107.868
    Sodium Na 22.9898
    Strontium Sr 87.62
    Sulfur S 32.064
    Tantalum Ta 180.948
    Tellurium Te 127.60
    Thallium Tl 204.37
    Thorium Th 232.038
    Tin Sn 118.69
    Titanium Ti 47.90
    Tungsten W 183.85
    Uranium U 238.03
    Vanadium V 50.942
    Xenon Xe 131.30
    Yttrium Y 88.905
    Zinc Zn 65.37
    Zirconium Zr 91.22

    Table \(\PageIndex{2}\): Physical Properties of Various Chemical Compounds

    Name Formula Molecular Mass, g/mol Liquid @ \(T\)(K) density K \(T_{melting}\) K \(T_{boiling}\) K
    Argon Ar 39.948 83.8 87.3

    Acetaldehyde

    \(\ce{C2H4O}\)

    44.054

    778

    293

    150.2

    293.6

    Acetic acid

    \(\ce{C2H4O2}\)

    60.052

    1049

    293

    289.8

    391.1

    Acetone

    \(\ce{C3H6O}\)

    58.08

    790

    293

    178.2

    329.4

    Acetylene

    \(\ce{C2H2}\)

    26.038

    192.4

    189.2

    Acrylic acid

    \(\ce{C3H4O2}\)

    72.064

    1051

    293

    285.

    414.

    Ammonia

    \(\ce{H3N}\)

    17.031

    195.4

    239.7

    Aniline

    \(\ce{C6H7N}\)

    93.129

    1022

    293.

    267.

    457.5

    Benzaldehide

    \(\ce{C7H6O}\)

    106.124

    1045

    293.

    216.

    452.

    Benzene

    \(\ce{C6H6}\)

    78.114

    885

    289

    278.7

    353.3

    Benzoic acid

    \(\ce{C7H6O2}\)

    122.124

    1075

    403

    395.6

    523.

    Bromine

    \(\ce{Br2}\)

    159.808

    3119

    293

    266

    331.9

    1,2-Butadiene

    \(\ce{C4H6}\)

    54.092

    137.

    284.

    1,3-Butadiene

    \(\ce{C4H6}\)

    54.092

    164.3

    268.7

    n-Butane

    \(\ce{C4H10}\)

    58.124

    134.8

    272.7

    i-Butane

    \(\ce{C4H10}\)

    58.124

    113.6

    261.3

    n-Butanol

    \(\ce{C4H10O}\)

    74.123

    810

    293

    183.9

    390.9

    1-Butene

    \(\ce{C4H8}\)

    56.108

    87.8

    266.9

    i-Butene

    \(\ce{C4H8}\)

    56.108

    132.8

    266.3

    Carbon tetrachloride

    \(\ce{CCl4}\)

    153.823

    1584

    298

    250.

    349.7

    Carbon dioxide

    \(\ce{CO2}\)

    44.01

    216.6

    194.7

    Carbon monoxide

    CO

    28.01

    68.1

    81.7

    Chlorine

    \(\ce{Cl2}\)

    70.906

    172.2

    238.7

    Chlorobenzene

    \(\ce{C6H5Cl}\)

    112.559

    1106

    293.

    227.6

    404.9

    Chloroform

    \(\ce{CHCl3}\)

    119.378

    1498

    293

    209.6

    334.3

    Cyclobutane

    \(\ce{C4H8}\)

    56.108

    182.4

    285.7

    Cyclohexane

    \(\ce{C6H12}\)

    84.162

    779

    293

    279.7

    353.9

    Cyclohexanol

    \(\ce{C6H12O}\)

    100.161

    942

    303

    298.

    434.3

    Cyclopentane

    \(\ce{C5H10}\)

    70.135

    745

    293

    179.3

    322.4

    Cyclopentene

    \(\ce{C5H8}\)

    68.119

    772

    293

    138.1

    317.4

    Ethane

    \(\ce{C2H6}\)

    30.07

    89.9

    184.5

    Ethanol

    \(\ce{C2H6O}\)

    46.069

    789

    293

    159.1

    351.5

    Ethyl amine

    \(\ce{C2H7N}\)

    45.085

    683

    293

    192.

    289.7

    Ethyl acetate

    \(\ce{C4H8O2}\)

    88.107

    901

    293

    89.6

    350.3

    Ethylbenzene

    \(\ce{C8H10}\)

    106.168

    867

    293

    178.2

    409.3

    Ethylendiamine

    \(\ce{C2H8N2}\)

    60.099

    896

    293

    284.

    390.4

    Ethyl ether

    \(\ce{C4H10O}\)

    74.123

    713

    293

    156.9

    307.7

    Ethyl propionate

    \(\ce{C5H10O2}\)

    102.134

    895

    293

    199.3

    372.

    Ethylene

    \(\ce{C2H4}\)

    28.054

    104.

    169.4

    Ethylene Glycol

    \(\ce{C2H6O2}\)

    62.069

    1,114

    293

    260.2

    470.4

    Ethylene oxide

    \(\ce{C2H4O}\)

    44.054

    161.

    283.5

    Fluorine

    \(\ce{F2}\)

    37.997

    53.5

    85

    Formaldehide

    \(\ce{CH2O}\)

    30.026

    156.

    254.

    Formic acid

    \(\ce{CH2O2}\)

    46.025

    1,226

    288

    281.5

    373.8

    Glycerol

    \(\ce{C3H8O3}\)

    92.095

    1,261

    293

    291.

    563.

    n-Heptane

    \(\ce{C7H16}\)

    100.205

    684

    293

    182.6

    371.6

    1-Heptanol

    \(\ce{C7H16O}\)

    116.204

    822

    293

    239.2

    449.5

    1-Heptene

    \(\ce{C7H14}\)

    98.189

    697

    293

    154.3

    366.8

    n-Hexane

    \(\ce{C6H14}\)

    86.178

    659

    293

    177.8

    341.9

    1-Hexanol

    \(\ce{C6H14O}\)

    102.177

    819

    293

    229.2

    430.2

    Hydrogen

    \(\ce{H2}\)

    2.016

    14.0

    20.4

    Hydrogen bromide

    HBr

    80.912

    187.1

    206.1

    Hydrogen chloride

    HCl

    36.461

    159.0

    188.1

    Hydrogen cyanide

    CHN

    27.026

    688 293

    259.9

    298.9

    Hydrogen sulfide

    \(\ce{H2S}\)

    34.08

    187.6

    212.8

    Iodine

    \(\ce{I2}\)

    253.808

    3,740

    453

    386.8

    457.5

    Isopropyl alcohol

    \(\ce{C3H8O}\)

    60.096

    786

    293

    184.7

    355.4

    Maleic anhydride

    \(\ce{C4H2O3}\)

    98.058

    1,310

    333

    326.

    472.8

    Methane

    \(\ce{CH4}\)

    16.043

    90.7

    111.7

    Mercury Hg 200.59 13,546 293 234.3 630.1

    Methanol

    \(\ce{CH4O}\)

    32.042

    791

    293

    175.5

    337.8

    Methyl acetate

    \(\ce{C3H6O2}\)

    74.08

    934

    293

    175.

    330.1

    Methyl acrylate

    \(\ce{C4H7O2}\)

    86.091

    956

    293

    196.7

    353.5

    Methyl amine

    \(\ce{CH5N}\)

    31.058

    179.7

    266.8

    Methyl benzoate

    \(\ce{C8H8O2}\)

    136.151

    1,086

    293

    260.8

    472.2

    Methyl ethyl ketone

    \(\ce{C4H8O}\)

    72.107

    805

    293

    186.5

    352.8

    Naphtalene

    \(\ce{C10H8}\)

    128.174

    971

    363

    353.5

    491.1

    Nitric oxide NO 30.006 109.5 121.4

    Nitrogen

    \(\ce{N2}\)

    28.013

    63.3

    77.4

    Nitrogen dioxide NO 30.01 112.2 122.2

    Nitrogen tetroxide

    \(\ce{N2O4}\)

    46.006

    261.9

    294.3

    Nitrous oxide

    \(\ce{N2O}\)

    44.013

    182.3

    184.7

    Oxygen

    \(\ce{O2}\)

    31.999

    54.4

    90.2

    n-Pentane

    \(\ce{C5H12}\)

    72.151

    626

    293

    143.4

    309.2

    1-Pentanol

    \(\ce{C5H12O}\)

    88.15

    815

    293

    195

    411

    1-Pentyne

    \(\ce{C5H8}\)

    68.119

    690

    293

    167.5

    313.3

    1-Pentene

    \(\ce{C5H10}\)

    70.135

    640

    293

    107.9

    303.1

    Phenol

    \(\ce{C6H6O}\)

    94.113

    1059

    314

    313

    455

    Propane

    \(\ce{C3H8}\)

    44.097

    85.5

    231.1

    1-Propanol

    \(\ce{C3H8O}\)

    60.096

    804

    293

    146.9

    370.4

    Propionic acid

    \(\ce{C3H6O2}\)

    74.08

    993

    293

    252.5

    414.

    Propylene

    \(\ce{C3H6}\)

    42.081

    87.9

    225.4

    Propylene oxide

    \(\ce{C3H6O}\)

    58.08

    829

    293

    161

    307.5

    Styrene

    \(\ce{C8H8}\)

    104.152

    906

    293

    242.5

    418.3

    Succinic acid

    \(\ce{C4H6O4}\)

    118.09

    456

    508

    Sulfur dioxide

    \(\ce{O2S}\)

    64.063

    197.7

    263.

    Sulfur trioxide

    \(\ce{O3S}\)

    80.058

    1780

    318

    290.

    318.

    Toluene

    \(\ce{C7H8}\)

    92.141

    867

    293

    178.

    383.8

    Trimethyl amine

    \(\ce{C3H9N}\)

    59.112

    156.

    276.1

    Vinyl chloride

    \(\ce{C2H3Cl}\)

    62.499

    119.4

    259.8

    Water

    \(\ce{H2O}\)

    18.015

    998

    293

    273.2

    373.2

    o-Xylene

    \(\ce{C8H10}\)

    106.168

    880

    293

    248.

    417.6

    m-Xylene

    \(\ce{C8H10}\)

    106.168

    864

    293

    225.3

    412.3

    p-Xylene

    \(\ce{C8H10}\)

    106.168

    861

    293

    286.4

    411.5

    Table \(\PageIndex{3}\): Constants for Antoine's Equation

    \(\log p_{vap} = A - B / (\theta + T)\), \(p_{vap}\) is in mm Hg and \(T\) is in \(^{\circ}\)C

    Compound Formula \(A\) \(B\) \(\theta\)

    Acetaldehyde

    \(\ce{CH3CHO}\)

    7.0565

    1070.6

    236.0

    Acetic acid

    \(\ce{CH3COOH}\)

    7.29963

    1479.02

    216.81

    Acetone

    \(\ce{CH3COCH3}\)

    7.23157

    1277.03

    237.23

    Acetylene

    \(\ce{C2H2}\)

    7.0949

    709.1

    253.2

    Acrylic acid

    \(\ce{C2H3COOH}\)

    7.1927

    1441.5

    192.66

    Ammonia

    \(\ce{NH3}\)

    7.36050

    926.132

    240.17

    Aniline

    \(\ce{C6H7N}\)

    7.2418

    1675.3

    200.01

    Benzaldehide

    \(\ce{C7H6O}\)

    7.1007

    1628.005

    207.04

    Benzene

    \(\ce{C6H6}\)

    6.90565

    1211.033

    220.790

    Benzoic acid

    \(\ce{C7H6O2}\)

    7.45397

    1820.

    147.96

    1,2-Butadiene

    \(\ce{C4H6}\)

    7.1619

    1121.0

    251.00

    1,3-Butadiene

    \(\ce{C4H6}\)

    6.85941

    935.531

    239.554

    \(n\)-Butane

    \(\ce{C4H10}\)

    6.83029

    945.90

    240.00

    \(n\)-Butanol

    \(\ce{C3H7CH2OH}\)

    7.4768

    1632.39

    178.83

    \(i\)-Butane

    \(\ce{C4H10}\)

    6.74808

    882.80

    240.00

    \(n\)-Butene

    \(\ce{C4H8}\)

    6.84290

    926.10

    240.00

    \(i\)-Butene

    \(\ce{C4H8}\)

    6.84134

    923.200

    240.00

    Carbon tetrachloride

    \(\ce{CCl4}\)

    6.8941

    1219.58

    227.17

    Chlorobenzene

    \(\ce{C6H5Cl}\)

    6.9781

    1431.05

    217.56

    Chloroform

    \(\ce{CHCl3}\)

    6.93707

    1171.2

    236.01

    Cyclobutane

    \(\ce{C4H8}\)

    6.92804

    1024.54

    241.38

    Cyclohexane

    \(\ce{C6H12}\)

    6.84498

    1203.526

    222.863

    Cyclopentane

    \(\ce{C5H10}\)

    6.88678

    1124.16

    231.37

    Cyclopentene

    \(\ce{C5H8}\)

    6.92704

    1121.81

    233.46

    Ethane

    \(\ce{C2H6}\)

    6.80266

    656.40

    256.00

    Ethanol

    \(\ce{CH3CH2OH}\)

    8.16290

    1623.22

    228.98

    Ethyl amine

    \(\ce{C2H7N}\)

    7.38618

    1137.3

    235.86

    Ethyl acetate

    \(\ce{C4H8O2}\)

    7.01455

    1211.9

    216.01

    Ethene (Ethylene)

    \(\ce{C2H4}\)

    6.74756

    585.00

    255.00

    Ethylbenzene

    \(\ce{C6H5C2H5}\)

    6.95719

    1424.55

    213.206

    Ethylendiamine

    \(\ce{C2H8N2}\)

    7.12599

    1350.0

    201.03

    Ethyl ether

    \(\ce{C4H10O}\)

    6.98467

    1090.64

    231.21

    Ethyl propionate

    \(\ce{C5H10O2}\)

    7.01907

    1274.7

    209.0

    Ethylene glycol

    \(\ce{C2H6O2}\)

    8.7945

    2615.4

    244.91

    Formaldehyde

    HCHO

    7.1561

    957.24

    243.0

    Formic acid

    HCOOH

    7.37790

    1563.28

    247.06

    Glycerol

    \(\ce{C3H8O3}\)

    7.48689

    1948.7

    132.96

    \(n\)-Heptane

    \(\ce{C7H16}\)

    6.90240

    1268.115

    216.900

    1-Heptanol

    \(\ce{C7H16O}\)

    6.64766

    1140.64

    126.56

    1-Heptene

    \(\ce{C7H14}\)

    6.90068

    1257.5

    219.19

    \(n\)-Hexane

    \(\ce{C6H14}\)

    6.87776

    1171.530

    224.366

    Hydrogen Bromide

    HBr

    6.28370

    539.62

    225.30

    Hydrogen Chloride

    HCl

    7.167160

    744.4906

    258.704

    Hydrogen cyanide

    HCN

    7.17185

    1123.0

    236.01

    Hydrogen Sulfide

    \(\ce{H2S}\)

    6.99392

    768.1302

    247.093

    Iodine (c)

    \(\ce{I2}\)

    9.8109

    2901.0

    256.00

    Isopropyl alcohol

    \(\ce{C3H8O}\)

    8.11822

    1580.92

    219.62

    Maleic anhydride

    \(\ce{C4H2O3}\)

    7.06801

    1635.4

    191.01

    Methane

    \(\ce{CH4}\)

    6.61184

    389.93

    266.00

    Methanol

    \(\ce{CH3OH}\)

    8.07246

    1574.99

    238.86

    Methyl acetate

    \(\ce{C3H6O2}\)

    7.00495

    1130.0

    217.01

    Methyl acrylate

    \(\ce{C4H7O2}\)

    6.99596

    1211.0

    214.01

    Methyl amine

    \(\ce{CH5N}\)

    7.49688

    1079.15

    240.24

    Methyl benzoate

    \(\ce{C8H8O2}\)

    7.04738

    1629.4

    192.01

    Methyl ethyl ketone

    \(\ce{C4H8O}\)

    7.20868

    1368.21

    236.51

    Napththalene

    \(\ce{C10H8}\)

    6.84577

    1606.529

    187.227

    Nitric Oxide

    NO

    8.74300

    682.938

    268.27

    Nitrogen Tetroxide

    \(\ce{N2O4}\)

    7.38499

    1185.722

    234.18

    Nitrous Oxide

    \(\ce{N2O}\)

    7.00394

    654.260

    247.16

    \(n\)-Pentane

    \(\ce{C5H12}\)

    6.85221

    1064.63

    232.000

    1-Pentanol

    \(\ce{C5H12O}\)

    7.17758

    1314.56

    168.16

    1-Pentyne

    \(\ce{C5H8}\)

    6.96734

    1092.52

    227.19

    1-Pentene

    \(\ce{C5H10}\)

    6.84648

    1044.9

    233.53

    Phenol

    \(\ce{C6H5OH}\)

    7.13457

    1516.072

    174.569

    Phosphorus Trichloride

    \(\ce{PCl3}\)

    6.8267

    1196.

    227.0

    Phosphine

    \(\ce{PH3}\)

    6.71559

    645.512

    256.066

    Propane

    \(\ce{C3H8}\)

    6.82973

    813.20

    248.00

    1-Propanol

    \(\ce{CH3CH2CH2OH}\)

    6.79498

    969.27

    150.42

    Propionic acid

    \(\ce{C3H6O2}\)

    7.57456

    1617.06

    205.68

    Propene (Propylene)

    \(\ce{C3H6}\)

    6.81960

    785.00

    247.00

    Propylene oxide

    \(\ce{C3H6O}\)

    6.65456

    915.31

    208.29

    \(n\)-Propionic Acid

    \(\ce{CH3CH2COOH}\)

    7.54760

    1617.06

    205.67

    Styrene

    \(\ce{C8H8}\)

    6.95709

    1445.58

    209.44

    Sulfur Dioxide

    \(\ce{SO2}\)

    7.28228

    999.900

    237.190

    Sulfur Trioxide

    \(\ce{SO3}\)

    9.05085

    1735.31

    236.50

    Toluene

    \(\ce{C6H5CH3}\)

    6.95464

    1344.800

    219.482

    Trimethyl amine

    \(\ce{C3H9N}\)

    6.97038

    968.7

    234.01

    Vynil chloride

    \(\ce{C2H3Cl}\)

    6.48709

    783.4

    230.01

    Water

    \(\ce{H2O}\)

    7.94915

    1657.46

    227.03

    \(o\)-Xylene

    \(\ce{C6H5(CH3)2}\)

    6.99891

    1474.679

    213.686

    \(p\)-Xylene

    \(\ce{C6H5(CH3)2}\)

    6.99052

    1453.430

    215.307


    1. For details see www.nist.gov/physlab/data/comp.cfm
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