2.7: Nomenclature
 Page ID
 33349
G_{s} 
Specific gravity 
 
ρ_{s} 
Density of the soil 
kg/m^{3} 
ρ_{w} 
Density of water 
kg/m^{3} 
g 
Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s^{2}) 
m/s^{2} 
M_{t} 
Mass of the soil, total mass 
kg 
M_{s} 
Mass of the solids 
kg 
M_{w} 
Mass of the water 
kg 
M_{a} 
Mass of the air 
kg 
V_{t} 
Volume of the soil, total volume 
m^{3} 
V_{s} 
Volume of the solids 
m^{3} 
V_{w} 
Volume of the water 
m^{3} 
V_{a} 
Volume of the air 
m^{3} 
ρ_{t} 
Density of the soil 
kg/m^{3} 
\(\gamma_{ \mathrm{t}}\) 
Unit weight of the soil 
N/m^{3} 
g 
Gravitational constant (9.81 m/s^{2}) 
m/s^{2} 
D_{r} 
Relative density 
 
e 
Current void ratio of the soil insitu 
 
e_{max} 
Void ratio of the soil at its loosest condition 
 
e_{min} 
Void ratio of the soil at its densest condition 
 
n 
Porosity of the soil insitu 
 
n_{max} 
Porosity of the soil at its loosest condition 
 
n_{min} 
Porosity of the soil in its densest condition 
 
V_{v} 
Volume of the voids/pores 
m^{3} 
V_{s} 
Volume of the solids/grains/particles 
m^{3} 
n 
Porosity 
 
e 
Void ratio 
 
C_{t} 
Sorting coefficient 
 
C 
Sorting coefficient 
 
K 
Hydraulic conductivity 
m^{2} 
k 
Permeability 
m/s 
f(n) 
porosity function 
 
C 
sorting coefficient 

d_{e} 
effective grain diameter 
mm 
d_{10} 
Grain diameter where 10% is smaller 
mm 
d_{60} 
Grain diameter where 60% is smaller 
mm 
U 
Grain uniformity coefficient 
 
\(\ v\) 
kinematic viscosity 

μ 
Dynamic viscosity 
Pa.s 
ρ_{w} 
Water density 
kg/m^{3} 
\(\ \gamma_{ \mathrm{w}}\) 
Unit weight of water 
N/m^{3} 
Q 
units of volume per time 
m^{3}/s 
K 
intrinsic permeability 
m^{2} 
k 
permeability 
m/s 
A 
cross sectional area 
m^{2} 
L 
Length 
m 
u_{a} 
Start excess pore pressure 
Pa 
u_{b} 
End excess pore pressure 
Pa 
μ 
dynamic viscosity of the fluid 
Pa.s 
c 
Cohesion 
kPa 
UCS 
Unconfined Compressive Strength 
kPa 
V 
The total volume of soil 
m^{3} 
n_{i} 
Initial porosity 
 
n_{cv} 
Porosity at constant volume 
 
ε 
Dilatation 
 
σ_{c} 
Unconfined Compressive Strength 
kPa 
F 
Maximum Failure Load 
kN 
A 
Crosssectional area of the core sample 
m^{2} 
E 
Deformation modulus 
N/m^{2} 
W 
Specific work of failure 
J/m^{3} 
σ_{T} 
Brazilian Tensile Strength (BTS) 
kPa 
D 
Diameter of the core sample 
m 
F 
Maximum Failure Load 
kN 
L 
Length of the core sample 
m 
I_{S} 
Point load index 
kPa 
F 
Failure load 
kN 
D_{e} 
Distance between platen tips 
m 
D_{e}^{2} 
= D^{2} for diametrical test 
m^{2} 
D_{e}^{2} 
= 4A/π = for axial, block and lump test 
m^{2} 
A 
= W.D = minimum crosssectional area of a plane through the platen contact points 
m^{2} 
ρ_{w}  Density of water  kg/m^{3} 
z_{w}  Depth below the water table 
m 
u  Hydrostatic pressure 
kPa 
g  Gravitational constant 
m/s^{2} 
σ_{1}  the major principal stress 
kPa 
σ_{3}  the minor principal stress  kPa 
\(\ \tau\)  the shear strength \(\ \tau\) = S_{u} (or somtimes c_{u})  kPa 
S_{u}  the undrained strength  kPa 
σ'  (σ  u) the effective stress  kPa 
σ 
Total stress applied normal to the shear plane 
kPa 
u 
Pore water pressure acting on the same plane 
kPa 
φ 
Effective stress friction angle or the angle of internal friction after Coulomb friction 
deg 
c' 
Cohesion 
kPa 
\(\ \tau\) 
The shear strength \(\ \tau\) = S_{u} (or sometimes c_{u}) 
kPa 