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1.4: Datagram Forwarding

  • Page ID
    11065
  • In the datagram-forwarding model of packet delivery, packet headers contain a destination address. It is up to the intervening switches or routers to look at this address and get the packet to the correct destination.

    In datagram forwarding this is achieved by providing each switch with a forwarding table of ⟨destination,next_hop⟩ pairs. When a packet arrives, the switch looks up the destination address (presumed globally unique) in its forwarding table and finds the next_hop information: the immediate-neighbor address to which – or interface by which – the packet should be forwarded in order to bring it one step closer to its final destination. The next_hop value in a forwarding table is a single entry; each switch is responsible for only one step in the packet’s path. However, if all is well, the network of switches will be able to deliver the packet, one hop at a time, to its ultimate destination.

    The “destination” entries in the forwarding table do not have to correspond exactly with the packet destination addresses, though in the examples here they do, and they do for Ethernet datagram forwarding. However, for IP routing, the table “destination” entries will correspond to prefixes of IP addresses; this leads to a huge savings in space. The fundamental requirement is that the switch can perform a lookup operation, using its forwarding table and the destination address in the arriving packet, to determine the next hop.

    Just how the forwarding table is built is a question for later; we will return to this for Ethernet switches in 2.4.1   Ethernet Learning Algorithm and for IP routers in 9   Routing-Update Algorithms. For now, the forwarding tables may be thought of as created through initial configuration.

    In the diagram below, switch S1 has interfaces 0, 1 and 2, and S2 has interfaces 0,1,2,3. If A is to send a packet to B, S1 must have a forwarding-table entry indicating that destination B is reached via its interface 2, and S2 must have an entry forwarding the packet out on interface 3.

    Switches S1 and S2, with hosts A-E, and all connections made through labeled interfaces

    A complete forwarding table for S1, using interface numbers in the next_hop column, would be:

    S1

     

    destination

    next_hop

    A

    0

    C

    1

    B

    2

    D

    2

    E

    2

    The table for S2 might be as follows, where we have consolidated destinations A and C for visual simplicity.

    S2

     

    destination

    next_hop

    A,C

    0

    D

    1

    E

    2

    B

    3

    In the network diagrammed above, all links are point-to-point, and so each interface corresponds to the unique immediate neighbor reached by that interface. We can thus replace the interface entries in the next_hop column with the name of the corresponding neighbor. For human readers, using neighbors in the next_hop column is usually much more readable. S1’s table can now be written as follows (with consolidation of the entries for B, D and E):

    S1

     

    destination

    next_hop

    A

    A

    C

    C

    B,D,E

    S2

    A central feature of datagram forwarding is that each packet is forwarded “in isolation”; the switches involved do not have any awareness of any higher-layer logical connections established between endpoints. This is also called stateless forwarding, in that the forwarding tables have no per-connection state. RFC 1122 [https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1122.html] put it this way (in the context of IP-layer datagram forwarding):

    To improve robustness of the communication system, gateways are designed to be stateless, forwarding each IP datagram independently of other datagrams. As a result, redundant paths can be exploited to provide robust service in spite of failures of intervening gateways and networks.

    The fundamental alternative to datagram forwarding is virtual circuits, 3.4   Virtual Circuits. In virtual-circuit networks, each router maintains state about each connection passing through it; different connections can be routed differently. If packet forwarding depends, for example, on per-connection information – eg both TCP port numbers – it is not datagram forwarding. (That said, it arguably still is datagram forwarding if web traffic – to TCP port 80 – is forwarded differently than all other traffic, because that rule does not depend on the specific connection.)

    Datagram forwarding is sometimes allowed to use other information beyond the destination address. In theory, IP routing can be done based on the destination address and some quality-of-service information, allowing, for example, different routing to the same destination for high-bandwidth bulk traffic and for low-latency real-time traffic. In practice, most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) ignore user-provided quality-of-service information in the IP header, except by prearranged agreement, and route only based on the destination.

    By convention, switching devices acting at the LAN layer and forwarding packets based on the LAN address are called switches (or, originally, bridges; some still prefer that term), while such devices acting at the IP layer and forwarding on the IP address are called routers. Datagram forwarding is used both by Ethernet switches and by IP routers, though the destinations in Ethernet forwarding tables are individual nodes while the destinations in IP routers are entire networks (that is, sets of nodes).

    In IP routers within end-user sites it is common for a forwarding table to include a catchall default entry, matching any IP address that is nonlocal and so needs to be routed out into the Internet at large. Unlike the consolidated entries for B, D and E in the table above for S1, which likely would have to be implemented as actual separate entries, a default entry is a single record representing where to forward the packet if no other destination match is found. Here is a forwarding table for S1, above, with a default entry replacing the last three entries:

    S1

     

    destination

    next_hop

    A

    0

    C

    1

    default

    2

    Default entries make sense only when we can tell by looking at an address that it does not represent a nearby node. This is common in IP networks because an IP address encodes the destination network, and routers generally know all the local networks. It is however rare in Ethernets, because there is generally no correlation between Ethernet addresses and locality. If S1 above were an Ethernet switch, and it had some means of knowing that interfaces 0 and 1 connected directly to individual hosts, not switches – and S1 knew the addresses of these hosts – then making interface 2 a default route would make sense. In practice, however, Ethernet switches do not know what kind of device connects to a given interface.