# 18.9: Stack Diagrams for Recursive Functions

In Section 3.10, we used a stack diagram to represent the state of a program during a function call. The same kind of diagram can help interpret a recursive function.

Every time a function gets called, Python creates a new function frame, which contains the function’s local variables and parameters. For a recursive function, there might be more than one frame on the stack at the same time.

Figure 5.9.1 shows a stack diagram for countdown called with n = 3.

As usual, the top of the stack is the frame for __main__. It is empty because we did not create any variables in __main__ or pass any arguments to it.

The four countdown frames have different values for the parameter n. The bottom of the stack, where n=0, is called the base case. It does not make a recursive call, so there are no more frames.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$

Draw a stack diagram for print_n called with s = 'Hello' and n=2.

Exercise $$\PageIndex{2}$$

Write a function called do_n that takes a function object and a number, n, as arguments, and that calls the given function n times.