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- Assigning a new value to a variable that already exists.
- An assignment where the new value of the variable depends on the old.
- An assignment that gives an initial value to a variable that will be updated.
- An update that increases the value of a variable (often by one).
- An update that decreases the value of a variable.
- Repeated execution of a set of statements using either a recursive function call or a loop.
- infinite loop:
- A loop in which the terminating condition is never satisfied.
- A general process for solving a category of problems.