# 7.2: Treap - A Randomized Binary Search Tree

- Page ID
- 8466

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\(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)The problem with random binary search trees is, of course, that they are not dynamic. They don't support the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) or \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) operations needed to implement the `SSet` interface. In this section we describe a data structure called a `Treap` that uses Lemma 7.1.1 to implement the `SSet` interface.^{2}

A node in a `Treap` is like a node in a `BinarySearchTree` in that it has a data value, \(\mathtt{x}\), but it also contains a unique numerical priority, \(\mathtt{p}\), that is assigned at random:

class Node<T> extends BinarySearchTree.BSTNode<Node<T>,T> { int p; }

In addition to being a binary search tree, the nodes in a `Treap` also obey the heap property:

- (Heap Property) At every node \(\mathtt{u}\), except the root, \(\texttt{u.parent.p} < \texttt{u.p}\).

In other words, each node has a priority smaller than that of its two children. An example is shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\).

The heap and binary search tree conditions together ensure that, once the key (\(\mathtt{x}\)) and priority (\(\mathtt{p}\)) for each node are defined, the shape of the `Treap` is completely determined. The heap property tells us that the node with minimum priority has to be the root, \(\mathtt{r}\), of the `Treap`. The binary search tree property tells us that all nodes with keys smaller than \(\texttt{r.x}\) are stored in the subtree rooted at \(\texttt{r.left}\) and all nodes with keys larger than \(\texttt{r.x}\) are stored in the subtree rooted at \(\texttt{r.right}\).

The important point about the priority values in a `Treap` is that they are unique and assigned at random. Because of this, there are two equivalent ways we can think about a `Treap`. As defined above, a `Treap` obeys the heap and binary search tree properties. Alternatively, we can think of a `Treap` as a `BinarySearchTree` whose nodes were added in increasing order of priority. For example, the `Treap` in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) can be obtained by adding the sequence of \((\mathtt{x},\mathtt{p})\) values

\[ \langle (3,1), (1,6), (0,9), (5,11), (4,14), (9,17), (7,22), (6,42), (8,49), (2,99) \rangle \nonumber\]

into a `BinarySearchTree`.

Since the priorities are chosen randomly, this is equivalent to taking a random permutation of the keys--in this case the permutation is

\[ \langle 3, 1, 0, 5, 9, 4, 7, 6, 8, 2 \rangle \nonumber\]

--and adding these to a `BinarySearchTree`. But this means that the shape of a treap is identical to that of a random binary search tree. In particular, if we replace each key \(\mathtt{x}\) by its rank,^{3} then Lemma 7.1.1 applies. Restating Lemma 7.1.1 in terms of `Treap`s, we have:

*In a Treap that stores a set \(S\) of \(\mathtt{n}\) keys, the following statements hold: *

- For any \(\mathtt{x}\in S\), the expected length of the search path for \(\mathtt{x}\) is \(H_{r(\mathtt{x})+1} + H_{\mathtt{n}-r(\mathtt{x})} - O(1)\).
- For any \(\mathtt{x}\not\in S\), the expected length of the search path for \(\mathtt{x}\) is \(H_{r(\mathtt{x})} + H_{\mathtt{n}-r(\mathtt{x})}\).

*Here, \(r(\mathtt{x})\) denotes the rank of \(\mathtt{x}\) in the set \(S\cup\{\mathtt{x}\}\).*

Again, we emphasize that the expectation in Lemma \(\PageIndex{1}\) is taken over the random choices of the priorities for each node. It does not require any assumptions about the randomness in the keys.

Lemma \(\PageIndex{1}\) tells us that `Treap`s can implement the \(\mathtt{find(x)}\) operation efficiently. However, the real benefit of a `Treap` is that it can support the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) and \(\mathtt{delete(x)}\) operations. To do this, it needs to perform rotations in order to maintain the heap property. Refer to Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). A rotation in a binary search tree is a local modification that takes a parent \(\mathtt{u}\) of a node \(\mathtt{w}\) and makes \(\mathtt{w}\) the parent of \(\mathtt{u}\), while preserving the binary search tree property. Rotations come in two flavours: left or right depending on whether \(\mathtt{w}\) is a right or left child of \(\mathtt{u}\), respectively.

The code that implements this has to handle these two possibilities and be careful of a boundary case (when \(\mathtt{u}\) is the root), so the actual code is a little longer than Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\) would lead a reader to believe:

void rotateLeft(Node u) { Node w = u.right; w.parent = u.parent; if (w.parent != nil) { if (w.parent.left == u) { w.parent.left = w; } else { w.parent.right = w; } } u.right = w.left; if (u.right != nil) { u.right.parent = u; } u.parent = w; w.left = u; if (u == r) { r = w; r.parent = nil; } } void rotateRight(Node u) { Node w = u.left; w.parent = u.parent; if (w.parent != nil) { if (w.parent.left == u) { w.parent.left = w; } else { w.parent.right = w; } } u.left = w.right; if (u.left != nil) { u.left.parent = u; } u.parent = w; w.right = u; if (u == r) { r = w; r.parent = nil; } }

In terms of the `Treap` data structure, the most important property of a rotation is that the depth of \(\mathtt{w}\) decreases by one while the depth of \(\mathtt{u}\) increases by one.

Using rotations, we can implement the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation as follows: We create a new node, \(\mathtt{u}\), assign \(\mathtt{u\texttt{.}x=x}\), and pick a random value for \(\texttt{u.p}\). Next we add \(\mathtt{u}\) using the usual \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) algorithm for a `BinarySearchTree`, so that \(\mathtt{u}\) is now a leaf of the `Treap`. At this point, our `Treap` satisfies the binary search tree property, but not necessarily the heap property. In particular, it may be the case that \(\mathtt{u.parent.p > u.p}\). If this is the case, then we perform a rotation at node \(\mathtt{w}\)= \(\texttt{u.parent}\) so that \(\mathtt{u}\) becomes the parent of \(\mathtt{w}\). If \(\mathtt{u}\) continues to violate the heap property, we will have to repeat this, decreasing \(\mathtt{u}\)'s depth by one every time, until \(\mathtt{u}\) either becomes the root or \(\texttt{u.parent.p} < \texttt{u.p}\).

boolean add(T x) { Node<T> u = newNode(); u.x = x; u.p = rand.nextInt(); if (super.add(u)) { bubbleUp(u); return true; } return false; } void bubbleUp(Node<T> u) { while (u.parent != nil && u.parent.p > u.p) { if (u.parent.right == u) { rotateLeft(u.parent); } else { rotateRight(u.parent); } } if (u.parent == nil) { r = u; } }

An example of an \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation is shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\).

The running time of the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation is given by the time it takes to follow the search path for \(\mathtt{x}\) plus the number of rotations performed to move the newly-added node, \(\mathtt{u}\), up to its correct location in the `Treap`. By Lemma \(\PageIndex{1}\), the expected length of the search path is at most \(2\ln \mathtt{n}+O(1)\). Furthermore, each rotation decreases the depth of \(\mathtt{u}\). This stops if \(\mathtt{u}\) becomes the root, so the expected number of rotations cannot exceed the expected length of the search path. Therefore, the expected running time of the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation in a `Treap` is \(O(\log \mathtt{n})\). (Exercise 7.3.5 asks you to show that the expected number of rotations performed during an addition is actually only \(O(1)\).)

The \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) operation in a `Treap` is the opposite of the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation. We search for the node, \(\mathtt{u}\), containing \(\mathtt{x}\), then perform rotations to move \(\mathtt{u}\) downwards until it becomes a leaf, and then we splice \(\mathtt{u}\) from the `Treap`. Notice that, to move \(\mathtt{u}\) downwards, we can perform either a left or right rotation at \(\mathtt{u}\), which will replace \(\mathtt{u}\) with \(\texttt{u.right}\) or \(\texttt{u.left}\), respectively. The choice is made by the first of the following that apply:

- If \(\texttt{u.left}\) and \(\texttt{u.right}\) are both \(\mathtt{null}\), then \(\mathtt{u}\) is a leaf and no rotation is performed.
- If \(\texttt{u.left}\) (or \(\texttt{u.right}\)) is \(\mathtt{null}\), then perform a right (or left, respectively) rotation at \(\mathtt{u}\).
- If \(\texttt{u.left.p} < \texttt{u.right.p}\) (or \(\texttt{u.left.p} > \texttt{u.right.p})\), then perform a right rotation (or left rotation, respectively) at \(\mathtt{u}\).

These three rules ensure that the `Treap` doesn't become disconnected and that the heap property is restored once \(\mathtt{u}\) is removed.

boolean remove(T x) { Node<T> u = findLast(x); if (u != nil && compare(u.x, x) == 0) { trickleDown(u); splice(u); return true; } return false; } void trickleDown(Node<T> u) { while (u.left != nil || u.right != nil) { if (u.left == nil) { rotateLeft(u); } else if (u.right == nil) { rotateRight(u); } else if (u.left.p < u.right.p) { rotateRight(u); } else { rotateLeft(u); } if (r == u) { r = u.parent; } } }

An example of the \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) operation is shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\).

The trick to analyze the running time of the \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) operation is to notice that this operation reverses the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation. In particular, if we were to reinsert \(\mathtt{x}\), using the same priority \(\texttt{u.p}\), then the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation would do exactly the same number of rotations and would restore the `Treap` to exactly the same state it was in before the \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) operation took place. (Reading from bottom-to-top, Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\) illustrates the addition of the value 9 into a `Treap`.) This means that the expected running time of the \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) on a `Treap` of size \(\mathtt{n}\) is proportional to the expected running time of the \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) operation on a `Treap` of size \(\mathtt{n}-1\). We conclude that the expected running time of \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) is \(O(\log \mathtt{n})\).

## \(\PageIndex{1}\) Summary

The following theorem summarizes the performance of the `Treap` data structure:

Theorem \(\PageIndex{1}\).

*A Treap implements the SSet interface. A Treap supports the operations \(\mathtt{add(x)}\), \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\), and \(\mathtt{find(x)}\) in \(O(\log \mathtt{n})\) expected time per operation.*

It is worth comparing the `Treap` data structure to the `SkiplistSSet` data structure. Both implement the `SSet` operations in \(O(\log \mathtt{n})\) expected time per operation. In both data structures, \(\mathtt{add(x)}\) and \(\mathtt{remove(x)}\) involve a search and then a constant number of pointer changes (see Exercise 7.3.5). Thus, for both these structures, the expected length of the search path is the critical value in assessing their performance. In a `SkiplistSSet`, the expected length of a search path is

\[ 2\log \mathtt{n} + O(1) \enspace , \nonumber\]

In a `Treap`, the expected length of a search path is

\[ 2\ln \mathtt{n} +O(1) \approx 1.386\log \mathtt{n} + O(1) \enspace . \nonumber\]

Thus, the search paths in a `Treap` are considerably shorter and this translates into noticeably faster operations on `Treap`s than `Skiplist`s. Exercise 4.5.7 in Chapter 4 shows how the expected length of the search path in a `Skiplist` can be reduced to

\[ e\ln \mathtt{n} + O(1) \approx 1.884\log \mathtt{n} + O(1) \nonumber\]

by using biased coin tosses. Even with this optimization, the expected length of search paths in a `SkiplistSSet` is noticeably longer than in a `Treap`.

#### Footnotes

^{2}The names `Treap` comes from the fact that this data structure is simultaneously a binary search tree (Section 6.2) and a heap (Chapter 10).

^{3}The rank of an element \(\mathtt{x}\) in a set \(S\) of elements is the number of elements in \(S\) that are less than \(\mathtt{x}\).