The nohup Command
The nohup command executes some other program that is specified as an argument and ignores all SIGHUP (hangup) signals. SIGHUP is a signal that is sent to a process when its controlling terminal is closed.
For instance, if a user is connected via SSH, and the connection drops or the user logs out, the session is terminated, and all the processes executed from the terminal will terminate. This is where the nohup command can be used - it ignores all hangup signals, and the process will continue to run.
nohup command arguments
The kill / pkill / killall Command
There are three different commands in Linux which are used to terminate processes manually. kill command sends a signal to a process which terminates the process. If the user doesn’t specify any signal which is to be sent along with kill command then default TERM signal is sent that terminates the process.
The kill and pkill commands send signals to processes directing them to terminate. Each signal has a number, name, and an associated event. Below are some of the most commonly used signals with their functionalities. A list of the various Linux signals can be found by issuing the kill command with the -l option.
pbmac@pbmac-server $ kill -l 1) SIGHUP 2) SIGINT 3) SIGQUIT 4) SIGILL 5) SIGTRAP 6) SIGABRT 7) SIGBUS 8) SIGFPE 9) SIGKILL 10) SIGUSR1 11) SIGSEGV 12) SIGUSR2 13) SIGPIPE 14) SIGALRM 15) SIGTERM 16) SIGSTKFLT 17) SIGCHLD 18) SIGCONT 19) SIGSTOP 20) SIGTSTP 21) SIGTTIN 22) SIGTTOU 23) SIGURG 24) SIGXCPU 25) SIGXFSZ 26) SIGVTALRM 27) SIGPROF 28) SIGWINCH 29) SIGIO 30) SIGPWR 31) SIGSYS 34) SIGRTMIN 35) SIGRTMIN+1 36) SIGRTMIN+2 37) SIGRTMIN+3 38) SIGRTMIN+4 39) SIGRTMIN+5 40) SIGRTMIN+6 41) SIGRTMIN+7 42) SIGRTMIN+8 43) SIGRTMIN+9 44) SIGRTMIN+10 45) SIGRTMIN+11 46) SIGRTMIN+12 47) SIGRTMIN+13 48) SIGRTMIN+14 49) SIGRTMIN+15 50) SIGRTMAX-14 51) SIGRTMAX-13 52) SIGRTMAX-12 53) SIGRTMAX-11 54) SIGRTMAX-10 55) SIGRTMAX-9 56) SIGRTMAX-8 57) SIGRTMAX-7 58) SIGRTMAX-6 59) SIGRTMAX-5 60) SIGRTMAX-4 61) SIGRTMAX-3 62) SIGRTMAX-2 63) SIGRTMAX-1 64) SIGRTMAX
Both the kill and killall commands use PIDs to determine which process is to receive the signal. The killall command terminates all programs that match a specified name.
pbmac@pbmac-server $ ps -ef | grep sleep root 1337 1218 0 07:33 pts/0 00:00:00 sleep 400 pbmac@pbmac-server $ kill -9 1337 pbmac@pbmac-server $ ps -ef | grep sleep pbmac@pbmac-server $
When using the pkill command the use of the command name that is to receive the signal is used.
pbmac@pbmac-server $ pkill -9 firefox
|Signal Name||Signal Value||Signal Meaning|
|SIGINT||2||This signal is the same as pressing CTRL-C. On some systems, "delete" + "break" sends the same signal to the process. The process is interrupted and stopped. However, the process can ignore this signal.|
|SIGKILL||9||The SIGKILL signal forces the process to stop executing immediately. The program cannot ignore this signal. This process does not get to clean-up either.|
|SIGTERM||15||This signal requests a process to stop running. This signal can be ignored. The process is given time to gracefully shutdown. When a program gracefully shuts down, that means it is given time to save its progress and release resources. In other words, it is not forced to stop. SIGINT is very similar to SIGTERM.|
|SIGSTOP||17, 19, 23||This signal makes the operating system pause a process's execution. The process cannot ignore the signal.|
|SIGSTP||18, 20, 24||This signal is like pressing CTRL-Z. This makes a request to the terminal containing the process to ask the process to stop temporarily. The process can ignore the request.|
For other signals, information can be found on the kill man page, the signal man page, and various web sites.