# 4.3: Source Code of Memory Puzzle

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Go ahead and first type in the entire program into IDLE’s file editor, save it as memorypuzzle.py, and run it. If you get any error messages, look at the line number that is mentioned in the error message and check your code for any typos. You can also copy and paste your code into the web form at http://invpy.com/diff/memorypuzzle to see if the differences between your code and the code in the book.

You’ll probably pick up a few ideas about how the program works just by typing it in once. And when you’re done typing it in, you can then play the game for yourself.

# Memory Puzzle
# By Al Sweigart al@inventwithpython.com
# http://inventwithpython.com/pygame
# Released under a "Simplified BSD" license

import random, pygame, sys
from pygame.locals import *

FPS = 30 # frames per second, the general speed of the program
WINDOWWIDTH = 640 # size of window's width in pixels
WINDOWHEIGHT = 480 # size of windows' height in pixels
REVEALSPEED = 8 # speed boxes' sliding reveals and covers
BOXSIZE = 40 # size of box height & width in pixels
GAPSIZE = 10 # size of gap between boxes in pixels
BOARDWIDTH = 10 # number of columns of icons
BOARDHEIGHT = 7 # number of rows of icons
assert (BOARDWIDTH * BOARDHEIGHT) % 2 == 0, 'Board needs to have an even number of boxes for pairs of matches.'
XMARGIN = int((WINDOWWIDTH - (BOARDWIDTH * (BOXSIZE + GAPSIZE))) / 2)
YMARGIN = int((WINDOWHEIGHT - (BOARDHEIGHT * (BOXSIZE + GAPSIZE))) / 2)

#            R    G    B
GRAY     = (100, 100, 100)
NAVYBLUE = ( 60,  60, 100)
WHITE    = (255, 255, 255)
RED      = (255,   0,   0)
GREEN    = (  0, 255,   0)
BLUE     = (  0,   0, 255)
YELLOW   = (255, 255,   0)
ORANGE   = (255, 128,   0)
PURPLE   = (255,   0, 255)
CYAN     = (  0, 255, 255)

BGCOLOR = NAVYBLUE
LIGHTBGCOLOR = GRAY
BOXCOLOR = WHITE
HIGHLIGHTCOLOR = BLUE

DONUT = 'donut'
SQUARE = 'square'
DIAMOND = 'diamond'
LINES = 'lines'
OVAL = 'oval'

ALLCOLORS = (RED, GREEN, BLUE, YELLOW, ORANGE, PURPLE, CYAN)
ALLSHAPES = (DONUT, SQUARE, DIAMOND, LINES, OVAL)
assert len(ALLCOLORS) * len(ALLSHAPES) * 2 >= BOARDWIDTH * BOARDHEIGHT, "Board is too big for the number of shapes/colors defined."

def main():
global FPSCLOCK, DISPLAYSURF
pygame.init()
FPSCLOCK = pygame.time.Clock()
DISPLAYSURF = pygame.display.set_mode((WINDOWWIDTH, WINDOWHEIGHT))

mousex = 0 # used to store x coordinate of mouse event
mousey = 0 # used to store y coordinate of mouse event
pygame.display.set_caption('Memory Game')

mainBoard = getRandomizedBoard()
revealedBoxes = generateRevealedBoxesData(False)

firstSelection = None # stores the (x, y) of the first box clicked.

DISPLAYSURF.fill(BGCOLOR)
startGameAnimation(mainBoard)

while True: # main game loop
mouseClicked = False

DISPLAYSURF.fill(BGCOLOR) # drawing the window
drawBoard(mainBoard, revealedBoxes)

for event in pygame.event.get(): # event handling loop
if event.type == QUIT or (event.type == KEYUP and event.key == K_ESCAPE):
pygame.quit()
sys.exit()
elif event.type == MOUSEMOTION:
mousex, mousey = event.pos
elif event.type == MOUSEBUTTONUP:
mousex, mousey = event.pos
mouseClicked = True

boxx, boxy = getBoxAtPixel(mousex, mousey)
if boxx != None and boxy != None:
# The mouse is currently over a box.
if not revealedBoxes[boxx][boxy]:
drawHighlightBox(boxx, boxy)
if not revealedBoxes[boxx][boxy] and mouseClicked:
revealBoxesAnimation(mainBoard, [(boxx, boxy)])
revealedBoxes[boxx][boxy] = True # set the box as "revealed"
if firstSelection == None: # the current box was the first box clicked
firstSelection = (boxx, boxy)
else: # the current box was the second box clicked
# Check if there is a match between the two icons.
icon1shape, icon1color = getShapeAndColor(mainBoard, firstSelection[0], firstSelection[1])
icon2shape, icon2color = getShapeAndColor(mainBoard, boxx, boxy)

if icon1shape != icon2shape or icon1color != icon2color:
# Icons don't match. Re-cover up both selections.
pygame.time.wait(1000) # 1000 milliseconds = 1 sec
coverBoxesAnimation(mainBoard, [(firstSelection[0], firstSelection[1]), (boxx, boxy)])
revealedBoxes[firstSelection[0]][firstSelection[1]] = False
revealedBoxes[boxx][boxy] = False
elif hasWon(revealedBoxes): # check if all pairs found
gameWonAnimation(mainBoard)
pygame.time.wait(2000)

# Reset the board
mainBoard = getRandomizedBoard()
revealedBoxes = generateRevealedBoxesData(False)

# Show the fully unrevealed board for a second.
drawBoard(mainBoard, revealedBoxes)
pygame.display.update()
pygame.time.wait(1000)

# Replay the start game animation.
startGameAnimation(mainBoard)
firstSelection = None # reset firstSelection variable

# Redraw the screen and wait a clock tick.
pygame.display.update()
FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)

def generateRevealedBoxesData(val):
revealedBoxes = []
for i in range(BOARDWIDTH):
revealedBoxes.append([val] * BOARDHEIGHT)
return revealedBoxes

def getRandomizedBoard():
# Get a list of every possible shape in every possible color.
icons = []
for color in ALLCOLORS:
for shape in ALLSHAPES:
icons.append( (shape, color) )

random.shuffle(icons) # randomize the order of the icons list
numIconsUsed = int(BOARDWIDTH * BOARDHEIGHT / 2) # calculate how many icons are needed
icons = icons[:numIconsUsed] * 2 # make two of each
random.shuffle(icons)

# Create the board data structure, with randomly placed icons.
board = []
for x in range(BOARDWIDTH):
column = []
for y in range(BOARDHEIGHT):
column.append(icons[0])
del icons[0] # remove the icons as we assign them
board.append(column)
return board

def splitIntoGroupsOf(groupSize, theList):
# splits a list into a list of lists, where the inner lists have at
# most groupSize number of items.
result = []
for i in range(0, len(theList), groupSize):
result.append(theList[i:i + groupSize])
return result

def leftTopCoordsOfBox(boxx, boxy):
# Convert board coordinates to pixel coordinates
left = boxx * (BOXSIZE + GAPSIZE) + XMARGIN
top = boxy * (BOXSIZE + GAPSIZE) + YMARGIN
return (left, top)

def getBoxAtPixel(x, y):
for boxx in range(BOARDWIDTH):
for boxy in range(BOARDHEIGHT):
left, top = leftTopCoordsOfBox(boxx, boxy)
boxRect = pygame.Rect(left, top, BOXSIZE, BOXSIZE)
if boxRect.collidepoint(x, y):
return (boxx, boxy)
return (None, None)

def drawIcon(shape, color, boxx, boxy):
quarter = int(BOXSIZE * 0.25) # syntactic sugar
half =    int(BOXSIZE * 0.5)  # syntactic sugar

left, top = leftTopCoordsOfBox(boxx, boxy) # get pixel coords from board coords
# Draw the shapes
if shape == DONUT:
pygame.draw.circle(DISPLAYSURF, color, (left + half, top + half), half - 5)
pygame.draw.circle(DISPLAYSURF, BGCOLOR, (left + half, top + half), quarter - 5)
elif shape == SQUARE:
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, color, (left + quarter, top + quarter, BOXSIZE - half, BOXSIZE - half))
elif shape == DIAMOND:
pygame.draw.polygon(DISPLAYSURF, color, ((left + half, top), (left + BOXSIZE - 1, top + half), (left + half, top + BOXSIZE - 1), (left, top + half)))
elif shape == LINES:
for i in range(0, BOXSIZE, 4):
pygame.draw.line(DISPLAYSURF, color, (left, top + i), (left + i, top))
pygame.draw.line(DISPLAYSURF, color, (left + i, top + BOXSIZE - 1), (left + BOXSIZE - 1, top + i))
elif shape == OVAL:
pygame.draw.ellipse(DISPLAYSURF, color, (left, top + quarter, BOXSIZE, half))

def getShapeAndColor(board, boxx, boxy):
# shape value for x, y spot is stored in board[x][y][0]
# color value for x, y spot is stored in board[x][y][1]
return board[boxx][boxy][0], board[boxx][boxy][1]

def drawBoxCovers(board, boxes, coverage):
# Draws boxes being covered/revealed. "boxes" is a list
# of two-item lists, which have the x & y spot of the box.
for box in boxes:
left, top = leftTopCoordsOfBox(box[0], box[1])
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, BGCOLOR, (left, top, BOXSIZE, BOXSIZE))
shape, color = getShapeAndColor(board, box[0], box[1])
drawIcon(shape, color, box[0], box[1])
if coverage > 0: # only draw the cover if there is an coverage
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, BOXCOLOR, (left, top, coverage, BOXSIZE))
pygame.display.update()
FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)

def revealBoxesAnimation(board, boxesToReveal):
# Do the "box reveal" animation.
for coverage in range(BOXSIZE, (-REVEALSPEED) - 1, -REVEALSPEED):
drawBoxCovers(board, boxesToReveal, coverage)

def coverBoxesAnimation(board, boxesToCover):
# Do the "box cover" animation.
for coverage in range(0, BOXSIZE + REVEALSPEED, REVEALSPEED):
drawBoxCovers(board, boxesToCover, coverage)

def drawBoard(board, revealed):
# Draws all of the boxes in their covered or revealed state.
for boxx in range(BOARDWIDTH):
for boxy in range(BOARDHEIGHT):
left, top = leftTopCoordsOfBox(boxx, boxy)
if not revealed[boxx][boxy]:
# Draw a covered box.
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, BOXCOLOR, (left, top, BOXSIZE, BOXSIZE))
else:
# Draw the (revealed) icon.
shape, color = getShapeAndColor(board, boxx, boxy)
drawIcon(shape, color, boxx, boxy)

def drawHighlightBox(boxx, boxy):
left, top = leftTopCoordsOfBox(boxx, boxy)
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, HIGHLIGHTCOLOR, (left - 5, top - 5, BOXSIZE + 10, BOXSIZE + 10), 4)

def startGameAnimation(board):
# Randomly reveal the boxes 8 at a time.
coveredBoxes = generateRevealedBoxesData(False)
boxes = []
for x in range(BOARDWIDTH):
for y in range(BOARDHEIGHT):
boxes.append( (x, y) )
random.shuffle(boxes)
boxGroups = splitIntoGroupsOf(8, boxes)

drawBoard(board, coveredBoxes)
for boxGroup in boxGroups:
revealBoxesAnimation(board, boxGroup)
coverBoxesAnimation(board, boxGroup)

def gameWonAnimation(board):
# flash the background color when the player has won
coveredBoxes = generateRevealedBoxesData(True)
color1 = LIGHTBGCOLOR
color2 = BGCOLOR

for i in range(13):
color1, color2 = color2, color1 # swap colors
DISPLAYSURF.fill(color1)
drawBoard(board, coveredBoxes)
pygame.display.update()
pygame.time.wait(300)

def hasWon(revealedBoxes):
# Returns True if all the boxes have been revealed, otherwise False
for i in revealedBoxes:
if False in i:
return False # return False if any boxes are covered.
return True

if __name__ == '__main__':
main()


4.3: Source Code of Memory Puzzle is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.