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1.3: The List Interface

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    The Java Collections Framework (JCF) defines an interface called List and provides two implementations, ArrayList and LinkedList.

    The interface defines what it means to be a List; any class that implements this interface has to provide a particular set of methods, including add, get, remove, and about 20 more.

    ArrayList and LinkedList provide these methods, so they can be used interchangeably. A method written to work with a List will work with an ArrayList, LinkedList, or any other object that implements List.

    Here's a contrived example that demonstrates the point:

    public class ListClientExample {
        private List list;
        public ListClientExample() {
            list = new LinkedList();
        private List getList() {
            return list;
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            ListClientExample lce = new ListClientExample();
            List list = lce.getList();

    ListClientExample doesn't do anything useful, but it has the essential elements of a class that encapsulates a List; that is, it contains a List as an instance variable. I'll use this class to make a point, and then you'll work with it in the first exercise.

    The ListClientExample constructor initializes list by instantiating (that is, creating) a new LinkedList; the getter method called getList returns a reference to the internal List object; and main contains a few lines of code to test these methods.

    The important thing about this example is that it uses List whenever possible and avoids specifying LinkedList or ArrayList unless it is necessary. For example, the instance variable is declared to be a List, and getList returns a List, but neither species which kind of list.

    If you change your mind and decide to use an ArrayList, you only have to change the constructor; you don't have to make any other changes.

    This style is called interface-based programming, or more casually, "programming to an interface" (see Here we are talking about the general idea of an interface, not a Java interface.

    When you use a library, your code should only depend on the interface, like List. It should not depend on a specific implementation, like ArrayList. That way, if the implementation changes in the future, the code that uses it will still work.

    On the other hand, if the interface changes, the code that depends on it has to change, too. That's why library developers avoid changing interfaces unless absolutely necessary.

    This page titled 1.3: The List Interface is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Allen B. Downey (Green Tea Press) .

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