# Appendix B1: Mathematical Formulas - Trigonometry

- Page ID
- 9415

\[e ^ { j \theta } = \cos \theta + j \sin \theta\]

\[\cos \theta = \frac { 1 } { 2 } \left( e ^ { j \theta } + e ^ { - j \theta } \right)\]

\[\sin \theta = \frac { 1 } { j 2 } \left( e ^ { j \theta } - e ^ { - j \theta } \right)\]

\[\cos ^ { 2 } \theta = \frac { 1 } { 2 } + \frac { 1 } { 2 } \cos 2 \theta\]

\[\sin ^ { 2 } \theta = \frac { 1 } { 2 } - \frac { 1 } { 2 } \cos 2 \theta\]

## Contributors

Ellingson, Steven W. (2018) Electromagnetics, Vol. 1. Blacksburg, VA: VT Publishing. https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-1 Licensed with CC BY-SA 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0. Report adoption of this book here. If you are a professor reviewing, adopting, or adapting this textbook please help us understand a little more about your use by filling out this form.