In many ways, current technology is limited by battery technology. For example, the battery of the Apple iPhone X weighs 42 g and has a specific energy of 246 $$\frac{W \cdot h}{kg}$$. It accounts for 24% of the weight of the phone [123] [124]. Similarly, the batteries of the Tesla Model S electric vehicle weigh 580 kg and have an overall specific energy of 141 $$\frac{W \cdot h}{kg}$$. They account for 27% of the weight of the car [125]. Relatedly, technology companies have been rocked by problems in battery manufacture. In July of 2015, more than half a million hoverboards produced by ten different companies were recalled due to battery explosions [126]. Also, Samsung recalled millions of Galaxy Note 7 smart phones in 2016, costing the company billions of dollars [127]. The batteries were manufactured by one of two different suppliers. Manufacturing issues in batteries produced by both suppliers made the phones susceptible to catching on fire [127].