Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$: A $$50\:\Omega$$ shorted gold microstrip line with width $$w = 500\:\mu\text{m}$$, length $$\ell = 1\text{ cm}$$ on a $$600\:\mu\text{m}$$ thick alumina substrate with relative permittivity $$\varepsilon_{r} = 9.8$$ and loss tangent $$\tan \delta = 0.001$$.
Figure $$\PageIndex{2}$$: Smith chart plot of the reflection coefficient of the shorted $$1\text{ cm}$$-long microstrip line in Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$: (a) a low-loss substrate with $$\tan \delta = 0.001$$; and (b) a high-loss substrate with $$\tan \delta = 0.1$$. Frequencies are marked in gigahertz.