# 12: Analog-to-Digital-to-Analog Conversion

Learning Objectives

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

• Outline the concept of pulse code modulation.
• Detail the advantages and disadvantages of signal processing in the digital domain.
• Define the terms resolution, quantization, and Nyquist frequency.
• Define an alias, and detail how it is produced and subsequently avoided.
• Explain the operation of an $$R/2R$$ digital-to-analog converter.
• Explain the need for anti-alias and reconstruction filters.
• Explain the operation of a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter.
• Detail the need for and operation of a track-and-hold amplifier.
• Explain the operation of a flash analog-to-digital converter.
• Compare the different analog-to-digital converters in terms of speed, size and complexity, and detail typical applications for each.