Previous chapters discussed the low-frequency operation of transmission lines. This chapter describes the origins of, particularly of planar lines. Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$ shows the typical frequency dependence of a line’s $$RLGC$$ parameters. The variations of $$R$$, $$L$$, and $$C$$ are of most interest, and, except with some semiconductor substrates, $$G$$ is usually negligible.
Figure $$\PageIndex{1}$$: Frequency dependence of transmission line parameters.
Figure $$\PageIndex{2}$$: Dispersion of a pulse along a line.