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Engineering LibreTexts

11.9.1: Introduction

Fig. 11.39: The control volume of Rayleigh Flow.

The third simple model for 1–dimensional flow with a constant heat transfer for frictionless flow. This flow is referred to in the literature as Rayleigh Flow (see historical notes). This flow is another extreme case in which the friction effects are neglected because their relative magnitute is significantly smaller than the heat transfer effects. While the isothermal flow model has heat transfer and friction, the main assumption was that relative length is enables significant heat transfer to occur between the surroundings and tube. In contrast, the heat transfer in Rayleigh flow occurs between unknown temperature and the tube and the heat flux is maintained constant. As before, a simple model is built around the assumption of constant properties (poorer prediction to case where chemical reaction take a place). This model is used to roughly predict the conditions which occur mostly in situations involving chemical reaction. In analysis of the flow, one has to be aware that properties do change significantly for a large range of temperatures. Yet, for smaller range of temperatures and lengths the calculations are more accurate. Nevertheless, the main characteristics of the flow such as a choking condition etc.~are encapsulated in this model. The basic physics of the flow revolves around the fact that the gas is highly compressible. The density changes through the heat transfer (temperature change). Contrary to Fanno flow in which the resistance always oppose the flow direction, Rayleigh flow, also, the cooling can be applied. The flow acceleration changes the direction when the cooling is applied.


  • Dr. Genick Bar-Meir. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or later or Potto license.