# 7.4: State Two Properties of Candidate Keys

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A candidate key is a conglomerate of attributes that identify a database record in a unique way without referencing any other key data from the database. A table may contain one or more candidates and one of those candidate keys has to be referred to as the primary key. The absolute requirement for a table to have is the primary key, but the maximum number of candidate keys is unlimited by any constraints.

The naming of a candidate key is coming from a super key with no redundant attribute and they are respectively selected from the set of super keys. Another name for candidate key could be minimal super key.

All candidate keys have common properties. One of the most important candidate key properties is that the attribute that is used for identification must remain the same for its lifetime. Another basic but important property of candidate keys is that the value of the attribute cannot be a null value. It’s a form of identification; therefore, if the value has a null value, there is no way a query can be applied to this row and find the desired information. Each candidate key must contain minimum fields to ensure uniqueness.

This example identifies each property in a unique and standard way. The studID, Roll Number and Email are unique attributes, therefore all three of them are candidate keys. Most importantly studID is a candidate key and also primary key. To uniquely identify each student, a query can use the primary key, which also serves as a candidate key. One of the other options would be to identify it by Roll Number or by the email, as only one email and Roll Number can exist.

Other examples of important candidate keys : Social Security Number, International Standard Book Numbers, Bank account numbers, Serial Numbers, Driver License Numbers, National Provider ID, Phone numbers and so on.

7.4: State Two Properties of Candidate Keys is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.