The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid flow will be discussed as a special case. Generally, there are two possibilities for two different materials to flow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). The materials can flow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current flow. When the materials flow in the opposite direction, it is referred as counter–current. In general, the co-current is the more common. Additionally, the counter–current flow must have special configurations of long length of flow. Generally, the counter–current flow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical flow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. The flow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the fluids. The main difference between the liquid–liquid flow to gas-liquid flow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. For example, water and air flow as oppose to water and oil flow. The other characteristic that is different between the gas flow and the liquid flow is the variation of the density. For example, a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric flow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. Thus, the flow of gas–liquid can have several flow regimes in one situation while the flow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one flow regime.
Dr. Genick Bar-Meir. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or later or Potto license.