# 4: The DFT as Convolution or Filtering

A major application of the FFT is fast convolution or fast filtering where the DFT of the signal is multiplied term-by-term by the DFT of the impulse (helps to be doing finite impulse response (FIR) filtering) and the time-domain output is obtained by taking the inverse DFT of that product. What is less well-known is the DFT can be calculated by convolution. There are several different approaches to this, each with different application.