# 0: Review of Concepts and Notation


Modular Arithmetic

We write the set of integers and the set of natural numbers as:

$Z\stackrel{\text{def}}{=}\{..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ...\}\nonumber$

$N\stackrel{\text{def}}{=}\{0, 1, 2, ...\}\nonumber$

0: Review of Concepts and Notation is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Mike Rosulek.