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# 0: Review of Concepts & Notation

Modular Arithmetic

We write the set of integers and the set of natural numbers as:

$Z\stackrel{\text{def}}{=}\{..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ...\}\nonumber$

$N\stackrel{\text{def}}{=}\{0, 1, 2, ...\}\nonumber$

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