The syntax for accessing the elements of a list is the same as for accessing the characters of a string—the bracket operator. The expression inside the brackets specifies the index. Remember that the indices start at 0:
>>> print cheeses Cheddar
Unlike strings, lists are mutable. When the bracket operator appears on the left side of an assignment, it identifies the element of the list that will be assigned.
>>> numbers = [17, 123] >>> numbers = 5 >>> print numbers [17, 5]
The one-eth element of
numbers, which used to be 123, is now 5.
You can think of a list as a relationship between indices and elements. This relationship is called a mapping; each index “maps to” one of the elements. Figure 10.2.1 shows the state diagram for
Lists are represented by boxes with the word “list” outside and the elements of the list inside.
cheeses refers to a list with three elements indexed 0, 1 and 2.
numbers contains two elements; the diagram shows that the value of the second element has been reassigned from 123 to 5.
empty refers to a list with no elements.
List indices work the same way as string indices:
- Any integer expression can be used as an index.
- If you try to read or write an element that does not exist, you get an
- If an index has a negative value, it counts backward from the end of the list.
in operator also works on lists.
>>> cheeses = ['Cheddar', 'Edam', 'Gouda'] >>> 'Edam' in cheeses True >>> 'Brie' in cheeses False