7.1: How programs run
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In order to understand caching, you have to understand how computers execute programs. For a deep understanding of this topic, you should study computer architecture. My goal in this chapter is to provide a simple model of program execution.
When a program starts, the code (or text) is usually on a hard disk or solid state drive. The operating system creates a new process to run the program, then the “loader” copies the text from storage into main memory and starts the program by calling
While the program is running, most of its data is stored in main memory, but some of the data is in registers, which are small units of memory on the CPU. These registers include:
- The program counter, or PC, which contains the address (in memory) of the next instruction in the program.
- The instruction register, or IR, which contains the machine code instruction currently executing.
- The stack pointer, or SP, which contains the address of the stack frame for the current function, which contains its parameters and local variables.
- General-purpose registers that hold the data the program is currently working with.
- A status register, or flag register, that contains information about the current computation. For example, the flag register usually contains a bit that is set if the result of the previous operation was zero.
When a program is running, the CPU executes the following steps, called the “instruction cycle”:
- Fetch: The next instruction is fetched from memory and stored in the instruction register.
- Decode: Part of the CPU, called the “control unit”, decodes the instruction and sends signals to the other parts of the CPU.
- Execute: Signals from the control unit cause the appropriate computation to occur.
Most computers can execute a few hundred different instructions, called the “instruction set”. But most instructions fall into a few general categories:
- Load: Transfers a value from memory to a register.
- Arithmetic/logic: Loads operands from registers, performs a mathematical operation, and stores the result in a register.
- Store: Transfers a value from a register to memory.
- Jump/branch: Changes the program counter, causing the flow of execution to jump to another location in the program. Branches are usually conditional, which means that they check a flag in the flag register and jump only if it is set.
Some instructions sets, including the ubiquitous x86, provide instructions that combine a load and an arithmetic operation.
During each instruction cycle, one instruction is read from the program text. In addition, about half of the instructions in a typical program load or store data. And therein lies one of the fundamental problems of computer architecture: the “memory bottleneck”.
In current computers, a typical core is capable of executing an instruction in less than 1 ns. But the time it takes to transfer data to and from memory is about 100 ns. If the CPU has to wait 100 ns to fetch the next instruction, and another 100 ns to load data, it would complete instructions 200 times slower than what’s theoretically possible. For many computations, memory is the speed limiting factor, not the CPU.