# 2: Modeling Basics

- Page ID
- 22364

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- 2.3: Incidence Graphs -Interpretations, Consistency, and Inconsistency
- Incidence graphs are useful tools for chemical engineers to model various relationships in a process. They are used to systematically map an entire chain of processes and controllers to describe the effect, which each element has on the others. This helps to visualize the possible process pathways or a chain of effects.

- 2.4: Excel Modeling - logical models, optimization with solver for nonlinear regression, sampling random numbers
- While it might be less accurate than other modeling programs, the Excel model provides good estimates, and facilitates observation and understanding of process behavior while requiring minimum computer knowledge. The following sections will provide you with a better understanding of these common Excel functions, followed by examples in engineering applications.

- 2.5: Noise Modeling - White, Pink, and Brown Noise, Pops and Crackles
- Noise can be the inherent fluctuations in some part in a system. Chemical engineers can use statistical properties to characterize noise so they can understand a current process or develop an optimal process. By characterizing the noise and determining its source, the engineer can devise methods to account for the noise, control a process, or predict the path of a system.