# Table of Contents

- Page ID
- 11980

## 1: Analysis of Deformation Processes

This TLP builds upon the introduction to yield criteria covered in the Stress analysis and Mohr's circle TLP and introduces a range of methods commonly used to study metal forming processes.1.1: Introduction to Analysis of Deformation Processes 1.2: Lévy-Mises Equations 1.3: Slip Line Field Theory 1.4: Work Formula Method 1.5: Limit Analysis 1.6: Finite Element Method 1.7: Hencky Relations 1.8: Deeper Questions

## 2: Introduction to Anisotropy

It is common in basic analysis to treat bulk materials as isotropic – their properties are independent of the direction in which they are measured. However the atomic scale structure can result in properties that vary with direction. This teaching and learning package (TLP) looks into typical examples of such anisotropy and gives a brief mathematical look into modelling the behaviour.2.1: Introduction 2.2: Mechanical analogy of anisotropic response 2.3: Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity 2.4: Derivation of the anisotropy ellipsoid 2.5: Anisotropic electrical conductivity 2.6: Anisotropic Diffusion 2.7: Anisotropic dielectric permittivity 2.8: Optical anisotropy and the optical indicatrix 2.9: Liquid crystals 2.10: Summary 2.11: Questions

## 3: Atomic Force Microscopy

This teaching and learning package provides a brief introduction to atomic force microscopy (AFM), some of the ways it is commonly used and some of the problems faced.3.1: Introduction 3.2: Tip Surface Interaction 3.3: Modes of Operation 3.4: The Scanner 3.5: Tip and Cantilever 3.6: Feedback 3.7: Scanner Related Artefacts 3.8: Tip Related Artefacts 3.9: Other Artefacts 3.10: Summary 3.11: Questions

## 4: Atomic Scale Structure of Materials

This teaching and learning package provides an introduction to crystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous solids, and how the atomic-level structure has radical consequences for some of the properties of the material. It introduces the use of polarised light to examine the optical properties of materials, and shows how a variety of simple models can be used to visualise important features of the microstructure of materials.4.1: Introduction 4.2: Single crystals- Shape and anisotropy 4.3: Single crystals- Mechanical properties 4.4: Single crystals- Optical properties 4.5: Polycrystals 4.6: Defects 4.7: Summary 4.8: Questions

## 5: Avoidance of Crystallization in Biological Systems

This teaching and learning package discusses the two main environmental threats leading to crystallization in plants and animals, and the ways in which organisms have adapted to avoid this crystallization. As part of this discussion, there is coverage of some of the theory of nucleation and crystallization.5.1: Introduction 5.2: Nucleation and crystallization 5.3: The water-sucrose system 5.4: Avoidance of crystallization by glass formation 5.5: Avoidance of crystallization by freeze resistance 5.6: Summary 5.7: Questions

## 6: Batteries

This TLP investigates the basic principles, design and applications of batteries. It covers both primary and rechargeable batteries, how they work and how they may be used.6.1: Introduction 6.2: Basic principles 6.3: Thermodynamics and kinetics 6.4: Primary batteries 6.5: Zinc 6.5.01: Zinc 6.5.1: Zinc/carbon batteries

6.6: Alkaline 6.6.01: Alkaline 6.6.1: Alkaline/manganese oxide batteries

6.7: Questions 6.8: Zinc 6.8.01: Zinc 6.8.1: Zinc/silver oxide batteries

6.9: Secondary batteries 6.10: Lead 6.10.01: Lead 6.10.1: Lead/acid batteries

6.11: Lithium batteries 6.12: Battery characteristics 6.13: The future

## 7: Bending and Torsion of Beams

This teaching and learning package provides an introduction to the mechanics of beam bending and torsion, looking particularly at the bending of cantilever and free-standing beams and the torsion of cylindrical bars.7.1: Introduction 7.2: Pole-vaulting 7.3: Bending moments and beam curvatures 7.4: Maximising the beam stiffness 7.5: Beam deflections from applied bending moments 7.6: Twisting moments (torques) and torsional stiffness 7.7: Springs 7.8: Plastic deformation during beam bending 7.9: Summary 7.10: Questions

## 8: Brillouin Zones

This teaching and learning package provides an introduction to Brillouin zones in two and three dimensions and is aimed at developing familiarity with Brillouin Zones. It will not cover any specific applications. Brillouin Zones are particularly useful in understanding the electronic and thermal properties of crystalline solids.8.1: Introduction 8.2: Reciprocal lattice vectors 8.3: Brillouin Zone construction 8.4: The general case in three dimensions 8.5: Zone Folding 8.6: Brillouin Zones in Three Dimensions 8.7: Summary 8.8: Questions

## 9: Brittle Fracture

This teaching and learning package (TLP) describes how and why materials break.9.1: Introduction 9.2: When do atomic bonds break? 9.3: Why do cracks weaken a material? 9.4: Inglis and the crack tip stress idea 9.5: Can we calculate the energy changes? 9.6: What about tension? 9.7: Another way of expressing the energies 9.8: Another way of calculating the energies 9.8: Why bother if they are the same? 9.9: Coping with a scatter in strength 9.10: When does the sample fail completely? 9.11: Sub-critical crack growth and R-curves 9.12: Summary 9.13: Questions

## 10: Casting

10.1: Section 1- 10.2: Section 2- 10.3: Section 3- 10.4: Section 4- 10.5: Section 5- 10.6: Section 6-

## 11: Coating mechanics

11.1: Section 1- 11.2: Section 2- 11.3: Section 3- 11.4: Section 4- 11.5: Section 5- 11.6: Section 6-

## 12: Creep Deformation of Metals

12.1: Section 1- 12.2: Section 2- 12.3: Section 3- 12.4: Section 4- 12.5: Section 5- 12.6: Section 6-

## 13: Crystallinity in polymers

13.1: Section 1- 13.2: Section 2- 13.3: Section 3- 13.4: Section 4- 13.5: Section 5- 13.6: Section 6-

## 14: Crystallographic Texture

14.1: Section 1- 14.2: Section 2- 14.3: Section 3- 14.4: Section 4- 14.5: Section 5- 14.6: Section 6-

## 15: Crystallography

15.1: Section 1- 15.2: Section 2- 15.3: Section 3- 15.4: Section 4- 15.5: Section 5- 15.6: Section 6-

## 16: Deformation of honeycombs and foams

16.1: Section 1- 16.2: Section 2- 16.3: Section 3- 16.4: Section 4- 16.5: Section 5- 16.6: Section 6-

## 17: Introduction to Deformation Processes

17.1: Section 1- 17.2: Section 2- 17.3: Section 3- 17.4: Section 4- 17.5: Section 5- 17.6: Section 6-

## 18: Dielectric materials

18.1: Section 1- 18.2: Section 2- 18.3: Section 3- 18.4: Section 4- 18.5: Section 5- 18.6: Section 6-

## 19: Diffraction and imaging

19.1: Section 1- 19.2: Section 2- 19.3: Section 3- 19.4: Section 4- 19.5: Section 5- 19.6: Section 6-

## 20: Diffusion

20.1: Fick's First Law of Diffusion 20.2: Fick's Second Law of Diffusion 20.3: Applications of Diffusion 20.4: Interdiffusion 20.5: Microstructural Effects 20.6: Temperature Effects

## Back Matter

Index