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    Glossary Entries



    Image Caption Link Source
    Minus; subtraction operator        
    Scalar and matrix multiplication operator        
    Array multiplication operator        
    Scalar and matrix exponentiation operator        
    Plus; addition operator        
    Quote sign and transpose operator        


    -- dashed


    -.  dash dotted


    Comma; separates statements and elements in a row        
    ; Semicolon; separates columns and suppresses display        
    ; Suppresses screen printing        
    : Colon; generates regularly spaced elements and represents an entire row or column        
    : dotted


    . Decimal point        
    . point        
    ._ Nonconjugated transpose operator        
    Ellipsis; line-continuation operator        
    .^ Array exponentiation operator        
    ( ) Parentheses; encloses function arguments and array indices; overrides precedence        
    [ ] Brackets; enclosures array elements        
    * star


    / Right-division operator        
    / Array right-division operator        
    \ Left-division operator        
    \ Array left-division operator        
    \n Insert a new line in the output string        
    \t Insert a tab in the output string        
    & Logical operator: AND        
    % Percent sign; designates a comment and specifies formatting        
    %d Format as an integer        
    %e Format as a floating point value in scientific notation        
    %f Format as a floating point value        
    %g Format in the most compact form: %f or %e        
    %s Format as a string        
    ^ triangle (up)


    + plus        
    < triangle (left)


    < Relational operator: less than        
    <= Relational operator: less than or equal to        
    = Assignment (replacement) operator        
    == Relational operator: equal to        
    > triangle (right)


    > Relational operator: greater than        
    >= Relational operator: greater than or equal to        
    | Logical operator: OR        
    ~ Logical operator: NOT        
    ~= Relational operator: not equal to        
    abs(x) Absolute value; |x|        
    acos(x) Inverse cosine; arcos x = cos –1 (x)        
    acosh(x) Inverse hyperbolic cosine; cosh –1 (x)        
    acot(x) Inverse cotangent; arccot x = cot –1(x)        
    acoth(x) Inverse hyperbolic cotangent; coth –1 (x)        
    acsc(x) Inverse cosecant; arcs x = csc –1 (x)        
    acsch(x) Inverse hyperbolic cosecant; csch –1 (x)        
    all True if all elements are nonzero        
    angle(x) Angle of a complex number x        
    ans Most recent answer        
    any True if any elements are nonzero        
    asec(x) Inverse secant; arcsec x = sec –1 (x)        
    asech(x) Inverse hyperbolic secant; sech –1 (x)        
    asin(x) Inverse sine; arcsin x = sin –1 (x)        
    asinh(x) Inverse hyperbolic sine; sinh –1 (x)        
    atan(x) Inverse tangent; arctan x = tan –1 (x)        
    atan2(y,x) Four-quadrant inverse tangent        
    atanh(x) Inverse hyperbolic tangent; tanh –1 (x)        
    axes Creates axes objects        
    axis Sets axis limits        
    b blue        
    bar Creates bar chart        
    bar Creates a bar chart        
    break Terminates execution of a loop        
    c cyan        
    case Provides alternate execution paths within switch structure        
    cat Concatenates arrays        
    cd Changes current directory        
    ceil Rounds to the nearest integer toward •        
    cell Creates cell array        
    celldisp Displays cell array        
    cellplot Displays graphical representation of cell array        
    char Creates character string array


    class Returns the class of an expression        
    clc Clears Command window        
    clear Removes variables from memory        
    clock Current date and time as date vector        
    close Closes the current plot        
    close all Closes all plots        
    collect Collects coefficients of like powers in an expression        
    conj(x) Complex conjugate of x        
    contour Creates contour plot        
    conv Computes product of two polynomials


    cos(x) Cosine; cos(x)        
    cosh(x) Hyperbolic cosine; cosh(x)        
    cot(x) Cotangent; cot(x)        
    coth(x) Hyperbolic cotangent; cosh(x)/sinh(x)        
    cputime CPU time in seconds        
    cross Computes cross products        
    csc(x) Cosecant; csc(x)        
    csch(x) Hyperbolic cosecant; 1/sinh(x)        
    d diamond


    date Displays current date        
    deal Matches input and output lists        
    deconv Computes ratio of polynomials        
    delete Deletes a file        
    det Computes determinant of an array        
    det Returns the determinant of a matrix        
    diary Switches on/off diary file recording        
    diff Returns the derivative of an expression        
    diff(x) Computes the difference between adjacent elements in the vector x        
    digits Sets the number of decimal digits used to do variable precision arithmetic        
    dir Lists all files in current directory        
    Dirac Dirac delta function (unit impulse)        
    disp Displays contents of an array or string        
    dot Computes dot products        
    double Converts an expression to numeric form        
    dsolve Returns a symbolic solution of a differential equation or set of equations        
    eig Computes the eigenvalues of a matrix        
    eig Returns the eigenvalues (characteristic roots) of a matrix        
    else Delineates alternate block of statements        
    elseif Conditionally executes statements        
    end Terminates for, while, and if statements        
    eps Accuracy of floating-point precision        
    erf(x) Computes the error function erf (x)        
    error Display error messages        
    eval Interpret strings containing Matlab expressions        
    exist Checks for existence of file or variable        
    exp(x) Exponential; ex        
    expand Expands an expression by carrying out jpowers        
    eye Creates an identity matrix        
    ezplot Generates a plot of a symbolic expression        
    factor Factors an expression        
    feval Function evaluation        
    fieldnames Returns field names in a structure array        
    figure Opens a new figure window        
    find Finds indices of nonzero elements        
    find Finds indices of nonzero elements        
    findstr Finds occurrences of a string        
    findsym Finds the symbolic variables in a symbolic expression        
    finite True if elements are finite        
    fix Rounds to the nearest integer toward zero        
    floor Rounds to the nearest integer toward - •        
    fmin Finds minimum of single-variable function        
    fmins Finds minimum of multivariable function        
    for Repeats statements a specific number of times


    format Controls screen-display format        
    format + Positive, negative, or zero        
    format bank Two decimal digits        
    format compact Suppresses some line feeds        
    format long 16 decimal digits        
    format long e 16 digits plus exponents        
    format loose Resets to less compact display mode        
    format rat Rational approximation        
    format short Four decimal digits (default)        
    format short e Five digits plus exponent        
    fplot Intelligent plotting of functions        
    fprintf Performs formatted writes to screen or file        
    fscanf Read formatted data from a file        
    function Creates a user-defined function M-file        
    fzero Finds zero of single-variable function        
    g green        
    gensig Generates a periodic sine, square, or pulse input        
    getfield Returns field contents of a structure array        
    global Declares variables to be global        
    global Define global variables        
    grid Displays gridlines        
    gtext Enables label placement by mouse        
    h hexagram


    Heaviside Heaviside function (unit step)        
    help Searches for a help topic        
    hist Aggregates the data into equally spaced bins        
    histc Aggregates the data into unequally spaced bins        
    hold Freezes current plot        
    i,j The imaginary unit −1        
    if Executes statements conditionally        
    ilaplace Returns the inverse Laplace transform        
    imag(x) Imaginary part of a complex number x        
    Inf Infinity        
    input Displays prompts and waits for input        
    int Returns the integral of an expression        
    interp1 Linear and cubic-spline interpolations of a function of one variable        
    interp2 Linear interpolation of a function of two variables        
    inv Computes inverse of a matrix        
    inv Returns the inverse of a matrix        
    iscell Identifies cell array        
    isempty True if matrix is empty        
    isfield Identifies a structure array field        
    isinf True if elements are infinite        
    isnan True if elements are undefined        
    isreal True if all elements are real        
    isstruct Identifies a structure array        
    k black        
    laplace Returns the Laplace transform        
    legend Legend placement by mouse        
    length Computers number of elements        
    limit Returns the limit of an expression        
    linspace Creates regularly spaced vector        
    load Loads workspace variables from a file        
    log(x) Natural logarithm; ln(x)        
    log10(x) Common (base 10) logarithm; log(x)= log10(x)        
    loglog Creates log-log plot        
    logspace Creates logarithmically spaced vector        
    lookfor Searches help entries for a keyword        
    m magenta        
    max Returns largest element        
    mean Calculates the average        
    median Calculates the median        
    mesh Creates three-dimensional mesh surface plot        
    meshc Same as mesh with contour plot underneath        
    meshgrid Creates rectangular grid        
    meshz Same as mesh with vertical lines underneath        
    min Returns smallest element        
    NaN Undefined numerical result (not a number)        
    nargin Number of function input arguments        
    nargout Number of function output arguments        
    num2cell Converts numeric array to cell array        
    numden Returns the numerator and denominator of an expression        
    o circle        
    ode113 Nonstiff, variable-order solver        
    ode15s Stiff, variable-order solver        
    ode23 Nonstiff, low-order solver        
    ode23b Stiff, low-order solver        
    ode23s Stiff, low-order        
    ode23t Moderately stiff, trapezoidal rule solver        
    ode45 Nonstiff, medium-order solver        
    odeset Creates integrator options structure for ODE solvers        
    ones Creates an array of ones        
    otherwise Default part of switch statement        
    p pentagram


    path Displays search path        
    pi The number π        
    pinv Computes pseudoinverse of a matrix        
    plot Generates xy plot        
    plot3 Creates three-dimensional plots from lines and points        
    polar Creates polar plot        
    poly Computes polynomial from roots        
    poly Returns the characteristic polynomial of a matrix        
    poly2sym Converts a polynomial coefficient vector to a symbolic polynomial        
    polyder Differentiates a polynomial, a polynomial product, or a polynomial quotient        
    polyfit Fits a polynomial to data        
    polyval Evaluates polynomial and generates error estimates        
    pretty Displays an expression in a form that resembles typeset mathematics        
    print Prints plot or saves plot to a file


    prod Product of each column        
    pwd Displays current directory        
    quad Numerical integration with adaptive Simpson’s rule        
    quadl Numerical integration with adaptive Lobatto quadrature        
    quit Stops MATLAB        
    r red        
    rand Generates uniformly distributed random numbers between 0 and 1        
    randn Generates normally distributed random numbers        
    rank Computes rank of a matrix        
    real(x) Real part of a complex number x        
    refresh Redraws current figure window        
    reshape Change size


    return Return to the invoking function        
    rmfield Removes a field from a structure array        
    roots Computes polynomial roots        
    round Rounds towards the nearest integer        
    rref Computes reduced row echelon form        
    Sample Word 1 Sample Definition 1         
    save Saves workspace variables in a file        
    sawtooth Generates a periodic sawtooth input        
    script Script M-files


    sec(x) Secant; sec(x)        
    sech(x) Hyperbolic secant; 1/cosh(x)        
    semilogx Creates semilog plot (logarithmic abscissa)        
    semilogy Creates semilog plot (logarithmic ordinate)        
    set Specifies properties of objects such as axes        
    setfield Sets contents of field        
    sign Signum function        
    simple Searches for the shortest form of an expression        
    simplify Simplifies an expression using Maple’s simplification rules        
    sin(x) Sine; sin(x)        
    sinh(x) Hyperbolic sine; sinh(x)        
    size Computes array size        
    solve Solves symbolic equations        
    sort Sorts each column        
    spline Cubic-spline interpolation        
    sqrt(x) Square root; x        
    square Generates a square wave input        
    stairs Creates stairs pot        
    std Calculates the standard deviation        
    stem Creates stem plot        
    stepfun Generates a step function input        
    strcmp Compares strings        
    struct Creates structure array        
    subplot Creates plots in subwindows        
    subs Substitutes variables or expressions        
    sum Sums each column        
    surf Creates shaded three-dimensional mesh surface plot        
    surfc Same as surf with contour plot underneath        
    switch Directs program execution by comparing point with case expressions        
    sym Creates a symbolic variable        
    sym2poly Converts an expression to a polynomial coefficient vector        
    syms Creates one or more symbolic variables        
    symsum Returns the symbolic summation of an expression        
    tan(x) Tangent; tan(x)        
    tanh(x) Hyperbolic tangent; sinh(x)/cosh(x)        
    taylor Returns the Taylor series of a function        
    text Places string in figure        
    tic, toc Start, stop a stopwatch timer        
    title Puts text at top of plot        
    trapz Numerical integration with the trapezoidal rule        
    type Displays contents of a file        
    unmkpp Computes the coefficients of cubic-spine polynomials        
    v triangle (down)


    vpa Sets the number of digits used to evaluate expressions        
    w white        
    warning Display a warning message        
    waterfall Same as mesh with mesh lines in one direction        
    what Lists all MATLAB files in the current directory        
    while Repeats statements an indefinite number of times        
    who Lists current variables        
    whos Lists current variables (long display)        
    wklread Reads .wk1 spreadsheet file        
    x x-mark        
    xlabel Adds text label to x-axis        
    xor Logical operator: EXCLUSIVE OR        
    y yellow        
    ylabel Adds text label to y-axis        
    zeros Creates an array of zeros        
    zlabel Adds text label to z-axis