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7: Min and Max Heaps

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    Some definitions of a heap follow:

    A heap is an array, where there are parent child relationships, and the index of a child is 2 * parent index, or 2* parent index + 1, and a child has an order after the parent, in some concrete ordering scheme injected by a client program of a heap. There is importance in maintaining the ordering n variant after the heap is changed. Some (Sedgewick and Wayne), have coined the term "swim" and "sink", where maintenance of the invariant involves a invariant breaking item swimming up above children of lower ordering, and then sinking below any children of higher ordering, as there may be two children , so one can swim above a lower ordered child, and still have another child with higher ordering.

    A heap is an efficient semi-ordered data structure for storing a collection of orderable data. A min-heap supports two operations:

      INSERT(heap, element)
      element REMOVE_MIN(heap)

    (we discuss min-heaps, but there's no real difference between min and max heaps, except how the comparison is interpreted.)

    This chapter will refer exclusively to binary heaps, although different types of heaps exist. The term binary heap and heap are interchangeable in most cases. A heap can be thought of as a tree with parent and child. The main difference between a heap and a binary tree is the heap property. In order for a data structure to be considered a heap, it must satisfy the following condition (heap property):

    If A and B are elements in the heap and B is a child of A, then key(A) ≤ key(B).

    (This property applies for a min-heap. A max heap would have the comparison reversed). What this tells us is that the minimum key will always remain at the top and greater values will be below it. Due to this fact, heaps are used to implement priority queues which allows quick access to the item with the most priority. Here's an example of a min-heap:

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) (CC BY-SA 3.0; by Mahanga at the English Wikipedia via Wikimedia Commons)

    A heap is implemented using an array that is indexed from 1 to N, where N is the number of elements in the heap.

    At any time, the heap must satisfy the heap property

      array[n] <= array[2*n]   // parent element <= left child


      array[n] <= array[2*n+1] // parent element <= right child

    whenever the indices are in the arrays bounds.

    This page titled 7: Min and Max Heaps is shared under a CC BY-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Wikibooks - Data Structures (Wikipedia) .

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