# 6.2: Source Code to Simulate

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This source code can be downloaded from http://invpy.com/simulate.py. If you get any error messages, look at the line number that is mentioned in the error message and check your code for any typos. You can also copy and paste your code into the web form at http://invpy.com/diff/simulate to see if the differences between your code and the code in the book.

You can download the four sound files that this program uses from:

# Simulate (a Simon clone)
# By Al Sweigart al@inventwithpython.com
# http://inventwithpython.com/pygame
# Released under a "Simplified BSD" license

import random, sys, time, pygame
from pygame.locals import *

FPS = 30
WINDOWWIDTH = 640
WINDOWHEIGHT = 480
FLASHSPEED = 500 # in milliseconds
FLASHDELAY = 200 # in milliseconds
BUTTONSIZE = 200
BUTTONGAPSIZE = 20
TIMEOUT = 4 # seconds before game over if no button is pushed.

#                R    G    B
WHITE        = (255, 255, 255)
BLACK        = (  0,   0,   0)
BRIGHTRED    = (255,   0,   0)
RED          = (155,   0,   0)
BRIGHTGREEN  = (  0, 255,   0)
GREEN        = (  0, 155,   0)
BRIGHTBLUE   = (  0,   0, 255)
BLUE         = (  0,   0, 155)
BRIGHTYELLOW = (255, 255,   0)
YELLOW       = (155, 155,   0)
DARKGRAY     = ( 40,  40,  40)
bgColor = BLACK

XMARGIN = int((WINDOWWIDTH - (2 * BUTTONSIZE) - BUTTONGAPSIZE) / 2)
YMARGIN = int((WINDOWHEIGHT - (2 * BUTTONSIZE) - BUTTONGAPSIZE) / 2)

# Rect objects for each of the four buttons
YELLOWRECT = pygame.Rect(XMARGIN, YMARGIN, BUTTONSIZE, BUTTONSIZE)
BLUERECT   = pygame.Rect(XMARGIN + BUTTONSIZE + BUTTONGAPSIZE, YMARGIN, BUTTONSIZE, BUTTONSIZE)
REDRECT    = pygame.Rect(XMARGIN, YMARGIN + BUTTONSIZE + BUTTONGAPSIZE, BUTTONSIZE, BUTTONSIZE)
GREENRECT  = pygame.Rect(XMARGIN + BUTTONSIZE + BUTTONGAPSIZE, YMARGIN + BUTTONSIZE + BUTTONGAPSIZE, BUTTONSIZE, BUTTONSIZE)

def main():
global FPSCLOCK, DISPLAYSURF, BASICFONT, BEEP1, BEEP2, BEEP3, BEEP4

pygame.init()
FPSCLOCK = pygame.time.Clock()
DISPLAYSURF = pygame.display.set_mode((WINDOWWIDTH, WINDOWHEIGHT))
pygame.display.set_caption('Simulate')

BASICFONT = pygame.font.Font('freesansbold.ttf', 16)
infoSurf = BASICFONT.render('Match the pattern by clicking on the button or using the Q, W, A, S keys.', 1, DARKGRAY)
infoRect = infoSurf.get_rect()
infoRect.topleft = (10, WINDOWHEIGHT - 25)

BEEP1 = pygame.mixer.Sound('beep1.ogg')
BEEP2 = pygame.mixer.Sound('beep2.ogg')
BEEP3 = pygame.mixer.Sound('beep3.ogg')
BEEP4 = pygame.mixer.Sound('beep4.ogg')

# Initialize some variables for a new game
pattern = [] # stores the pattern of colors
currentStep = 0 # the color the player must push next
lastClickTime = 0 # timestamp of the player's last button push
score = 0
# when False, the pattern is playing. when True, waiting for the player to click a colored button:
waitingForInput = False

while True: # main game loop
clickedButton = None # button that was clicked (set to YELLOW, RED, GREEN, or BLUE)
DISPLAYSURF.fill(bgColor)
drawButtons()

scoreSurf = BASICFONT.render('Score: ' + str(score), 1, WHITE)
scoreRect = scoreSurf.get_rect()
scoreRect.topleft = (WINDOWWIDTH - 100, 10)
DISPLAYSURF.blit(scoreSurf, scoreRect)

DISPLAYSURF.blit(infoSurf, infoRect)

checkForQuit()
for event in pygame.event.get(): # event handling loop
if event.type == MOUSEBUTTONUP:
mousex, mousey = event.pos
clickedButton = getButtonClicked(mousex, mousey)
elif event.type == KEYDOWN:
if event.key == K_q:
clickedButton = YELLOW
elif event.key == K_w:
clickedButton = BLUE
elif event.key == K_a:
clickedButton = RED
elif event.key == K_s:
clickedButton = GREEN

if not waitingForInput:
# play the pattern
pygame.display.update()
pygame.time.wait(1000)
pattern.append(random.choice((YELLOW, BLUE, RED, GREEN)))
for button in pattern:
flashButtonAnimation(button)
pygame.time.wait(FLASHDELAY)
waitingForInput = True
else:
# wait for the player to enter buttons
if clickedButton and clickedButton == pattern[currentStep]:
# pushed the correct button
flashButtonAnimation(clickedButton)
currentStep += 1
lastClickTime = time.time()

if currentStep == len(pattern):
# pushed the last button in the pattern
changeBackgroundAnimation()
score += 1
waitingForInput = False
currentStep = 0 # reset back to first step

elif (clickedButton and clickedButton != pattern[currentStep]) or (currentStep != 0 and time.time() - TIMEOUT > lastClickTime):
# pushed the incorrect button, or has timed out
gameOverAnimation()
# reset the variables for a new game:
pattern = []
currentStep = 0
waitingForInput = False
score = 0
pygame.time.wait(1000)
changeBackgroundAnimation()

pygame.display.update()
FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)

def terminate():
pygame.quit()
sys.exit()

def checkForQuit():
for event in pygame.event.get(QUIT): # get all the QUIT events
terminate() # terminate if any QUIT events are present
for event in pygame.event.get(KEYUP): # get all the KEYUP events
if event.key == K_ESCAPE:
terminate() # terminate if the KEYUP event was for the Esc key
pygame.event.post(event) # put the other KEYUP event objects back

def flashButtonAnimation(color, animationSpeed=50):
if color == YELLOW:
sound = BEEP1
flashColor = BRIGHTYELLOW
rectangle = YELLOWRECT
elif color == BLUE:
sound = BEEP2
flashColor = BRIGHTBLUE
rectangle = BLUERECT
elif color == RED:
sound = BEEP3
flashColor = BRIGHTRED
rectangle = REDRECT
elif color == GREEN:
sound = BEEP4
flashColor = BRIGHTGREEN
rectangle = GREENRECT

origSurf = DISPLAYSURF.copy()
flashSurf = pygame.Surface((BUTTONSIZE, BUTTONSIZE))
flashSurf = flashSurf.convert_alpha()
r, g, b = flashColor
sound.play()
for start, end, step in ((0, 255, 1), (255, 0, -1)): # animation loop
for alpha in range(start, end, animationSpeed * step):
checkForQuit()
DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))
flashSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
DISPLAYSURF.blit(flashSurf, rectangle.topleft)
pygame.display.update()
FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)
DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))

def drawButtons():
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, YELLOW, YELLOWRECT)
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, BLUE,   BLUERECT)
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, RED,    REDRECT)
pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, GREEN,  GREENRECT)

def changeBackgroundAnimation(animationSpeed=40):
global bgColor
newBgColor = (random.randint(0, 255), random.randint(0, 255), random.randint(0, 255))

newBgSurf = pygame.Surface((WINDOWWIDTH, WINDOWHEIGHT))
newBgSurf = newBgSurf.convert_alpha()
r, g, b = newBgColor
for alpha in range(0, 255, animationSpeed): # animation loop
checkForQuit()
DISPLAYSURF.fill(bgColor)

newBgSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
DISPLAYSURF.blit(newBgSurf, (0, 0))

drawButtons() # redraw the buttons on top of the tint

pygame.display.update()
FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)
bgColor = newBgColor

def gameOverAnimation(color=WHITE, animationSpeed=50):
# play all beeps at once, then flash the background
origSurf = DISPLAYSURF.copy()
flashSurf = pygame.Surface(DISPLAYSURF.get_size())
flashSurf = flashSurf.convert_alpha()
BEEP1.play() # play all four beeps at the same time, roughly.
BEEP2.play()
BEEP3.play()
BEEP4.play()
r, g, b = color
for i in range(3): # do the flash 3 times
for start, end, step in ((0, 255, 1), (255, 0, -1)):
# The first iteration in this loop sets the following for loop
# to go from 0 to 255, the second from 255 to 0.
for alpha in range(start, end, animationSpeed * step): # animation loop
# alpha means transparency. 255 is opaque, 0 is invisible
checkForQuit()
flashSurf.fill((r, g, b, alpha))
DISPLAYSURF.blit(origSurf, (0, 0))
DISPLAYSURF.blit(flashSurf, (0, 0))
drawButtons()
pygame.display.update()
FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)

def getButtonClicked(x, y):
if YELLOWRECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
return YELLOW
elif BLUERECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
return BLUE
elif REDRECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
return RED
elif GREENRECT.collidepoint( (x, y) ):
return GREEN
return None

if __name__ == '__main__':
main() 

6.2: Source Code to Simulate is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.