Also Known As: Engage Customers [Cop95].
Intent Maximize acceptance of changes by involving the users at every step.
How can you be sure that users will accept the reengineered system?
This problem is difficult because:
- The old systems works. It is clunky, but the users know how it works and know how to get around the problems.
- People hate to have to learn something new unless it really makes their life simpler.
- User perceptions of what is needed to improve a system tend to change as the system evolves.
- Users can have difficulty evaluating a paper design.
- It is hard to get excited about a new system that is not ready to use.
Yet, solving this problem is feasible because:
- Users will try new solutions if they see that their needs are being seriously addressed.
- Users will give you feedback if you give them something useful to use.
Get the users directly involved in the new development, and support them closely in using the new system.
Get the users to tell you where their priorities lie. Start with Most Valuable First. Break the priorities down into small steps that can be delivered in regular increments, so you can Build Confidence.
Create an environment that will encourage contact between users and developers. Physical location is important.
Establish simple procedures for delivering intermediate results on a regular basis and obtaining feedback. Early prototypes may help, especially to evaluate risky new technologies or approaches. A good strategy is to Migrate Systems Incrementally so that users can start using the new system as it is being built. You should Conserve Familiarity to avoid alienating users.
- Requirements will continuously be validated and updated, increasing your chances that you will move in the right direction.
- If the users feel they are getting useful results and they are being supported, they will put extra effort into giving useful feedback.
- Users will be involved throughout the effort, eliminating the need for a special training session late in the project.
- Developers may feel that supporting users is distracting them from the job of reengineering the system.
- If you succeed in involving the users, this will raise expectations and put extra pressure on your team. For instance, Yourdon mentions that prototypes can really raise expectations too much and that you should always make clear which parts are not yet working [You97].
- It can be hard to involve the users initially, before you have shown any results.
- You can’t involve everybody, and the users who are left out might feel neglected.
You need a feedback loop to ensure that you are addressing the real customer needs. By involving and supporting the users, you encourage this feedback loop.
Coplien points out: “Note that ‘maintaining product quality’ is not the problem being solved here. Product quality is only one component of customer satisfaction.” [Cop95]
Virtually all of the patterns in this cluster support Involve the Users. Migrate Systems Incrementally to get the users working with the system as it is being reengineered and thereby Build Confidence.
The Planning Game [BF01] is an effective technique to Involve the Users by iteratively identifying stories, estimating costs, and committing to the stories to be released.