# 3.5: The SAT Problem

• Eric Lehman, F. Thomson Leighton, & Alberty R. Meyer
• Google and Massachusetts Institute of Technology via MIT OpenCourseWare
$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$ $$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}$$ $$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$ $$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$ $$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$ $$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$ $$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}$$ $$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$ $$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$ $$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$ $$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$ $$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$$$\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}$$

Determining whether or not a more complicated proposition is satisfiable is not so easy. How about this one?

$\nonumber (P \text{ OR } Q \text{ OR } R) \text{ AND } (\overline{P} \text{ OR } \overline{Q}) \text{ AND } (\overline{P} \text{ OR } \overline{R}) \text{ AND } (\overline{R} \text{ OR } \overline{Q})$

The general problem of deciding whether a proposition is satisfiable is called SAT. One approach to SAT is to construct a truth table and check whether or not a $$\textbf{T}$$ ever appears, but as with testing validity, this approach quickly bogs down for formulas with many variables because truth tables grow exponentially with the number of variables.

Is there a more efficient solution to SAT? In particular, is there some brilliant procedure that determines SAT in a number of steps that grows polynomially — like $$n^2$$ or $$n^{14}$$ — instead of exponentially — $$2^n$$ — whether any given proposition of size $$n$$ is satisfiable or not? No one knows. And an awful lot hangs on the answer.

The general definition of an “efficient” procedure is one that runs in polynomial time, that is, that runs in a number of basic steps bounded by a polynomial in $$s$$, where $$s$$ is the size of an input. It turns out that an efficient solution to SAT would immediately imply efficient solutions to many other important problems involving scheduling, routing, resource allocation, and circuit verification across multiple disciplines including programming, algebra, finance, and political theory. This would be wonderful, but there would also be worldwide chaos. Decrypting coded messages would also become an easy task, so online financial transactions would be insecure and secret communications could be read by everyone. Why this would happen is explained in Section 8.12.

Of course, the situation is the same for validity checking, since you can check for validity by checking for satisfiability of a negated formula. This also explains why the simplification of formulas mentioned in Section 3.2 would be hard—validity testing is a special case of determining if a formula simplifies to (\textbf{T}\).

Recently there has been exciting progress on SAT-solvers for practical applications like digital circuit verification. These programs find satisfying assignments with amazing efficiency even for formulas with millions of variables. Unfortunately, it’s hard to predict which kind of formulas are amenable to SAT-solver methods, and for formulas that are unsatisfiable, SAT-solvers generally get nowhere.

So no one has a good idea how to solve SAT in polynomial time, or how to prove that it can’t be done—researchers are completely stuck. The problem of determining whether or not SAT has a polynomial time solution is known as the “(\textbf{P}\) vs. (\textbf{NP}\)” problem.1 It is the outstanding unanswered question in theoretical computer science. It is also one of the seven Millenium Problems: the Clay Institute will award you \$1,000,000 if you solve the (\textbf{P}\) vs. (\textbf{NP}\) problem.

1$$\textbf{P}$$ stands for problems whose instances can be solved in time that grows polynomially with the size of the instance. $$\textbf{NP}$$ stands for $$\textbf{n}ondeterministtic$$ $$\textbf{p}olynomial$$ time, but we’ll leave an explanation of what that is to texts on the theory of computational complexity

This page titled 3.5: The SAT Problem is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Eric Lehman, F. Thomson Leighton, & Alberty R. Meyer (MIT OpenCourseWare) .