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Engineering LibreTexts

3.1: Theory Overview

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    The open-loop voltage gain of the typical op amp is very high, approaching 100,000 at low frequencies. With such a high gain, even minute differences between the inverting and non-inverting input signals will be magnified to the point of causing saturation. Thus, if the non-inverting input signal exceeds the inverting input signal, the output will be at positive saturation. If the signals are reversed, then negative saturation results. If both inputs are identical, then the output will go to either positive or negative saturation, depending on the internal offsets of the op amp.

    This page titled 3.1: Theory Overview is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by James M. Fiore via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.