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Engineering LibreTexts

2: Equilibrium

  • Page ID
    31539
    • 2.1: Equilibrium Introduction
      Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance. Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance.
    • 2.2: Chemical Equilibria
      A reaction is at equilibrium when the amounts of reactants or products no longer change. Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process, meaning the rate of formation of products by the forward reaction is equal to the rate at which the products re-form reactants by the reverse reaction.
    • 2.3: Equilibrium Constants and Reaction Quotients
      For any reaction that is at equilibrium, the reaction quotient Q is equal to the equilibrium constant K for the reaction. If a reactant or product is a pure solid, a pure liquid, or the solvent in a dilute solution, the concentration of this component does not appear in the expression for the equilibrium constant. At equilibrium, the values of the concentrations of the reactants and products are constant and the reaction quotient will always equal K.
    • 2.4: Le Chatelier’s Principle
      Systems at equilibrium can be disturbed by changes to temperature, concentration, and, in some cases, volume and pressure; volume and pressure changes will disturb equilibrium if the number of moles of gas is different on the reactant and product sides of the reaction. The system's response to these disturbances is described by Le Châtelier's principle: The system will respond in a way that counteracts the disturbance. Not all changes to the system result in a disturbance of the equilibrium.