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4.5: Data Manipulation

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    Data Manipulation

    Single values by themselves are important; however we need a method of manipulating values (processing data). Scientists wanted an accurate machine for manipulating values. They wanted a machine to process numbers or calculate answers (that is compute the answer). Prior to 1950, dictionaries listed the definition of computers as " humans that do computations". Thus, all of the terminology for describing data manipulation is math oriented. Additionally, the two fundamental data type families (the integer family and floating-point family) consist entirely of number values.

    An Expression Example with Evaluation

    Let's look at an example: 2 + 3 * 4 + 5 is our expression but what does it equal?

    the symbols of + meaning addition and * meaning multiplication are our operators

    the values 2, 3, 4 and 5 are our operands

    precedence says that multiplication is higher than addition

    thus, we evaluate the 3 * 4 to get 12

    now we have: 2 + 12 + 5

    the associativity rules say that addition goes left to right, thus we evaluate the 2 +12 to get 14

    now we have: 14 + 5

    finally, we evaluate the 14 + 5 to get 19; which is the value of the expression

    Parentheses would change the outcome. (2 + 3) * (4 + 5) evaluates to 45.

    Parentheses would change the outcome. (2 + 3) * 4 + 5 evaluates to 25.

    Precedence of Operators Chart

    Each computer language has some rules that define precedence and associativity. They often follow rules we may have already learned. Multiplication and division come before addition and subtraction is a rule we learned in grade school. This rule still works. The precedence rules vary from one programming language to another. You should refer to the reference sheet that summarizes the rules for the language that you are using. It is often called a Precedence of Operators Chart. You should review this chart as needed when evaluating expressions.

    A valid expression consists of operand(s) and operator(s) that are put together properly. Why the (s)? Some operators are:

    Unary – that is only have one operand

    Binary – that is have two operands, one on each side of the operator

    Trinary – which has two operator symbols that separate three operands

    Most operators are binary, that is they require two operands. Within C++ there is only one trinary operator, the conditional (we will talk about this later in the semester). All of the unary operators are on the left side of the operand, except postfix increment and postfix decrement. Some precedence charts indicate of which operators are unary and trinary and thus all others are binary.


    A valid sequence of operand(s) and operator(s) that reduces (or evaluates) to a single value.
    A language-specific syntactical token (usually a symbol) that causes an action to be taken on one or more operands.
    A value that receives the operator's action.
    Determines the order in which the operators are allowed to manipulate the operands.
    Determines the order in which the operators of the same precedence are allowed to manipulate the operands.
    The process of applying the operators to the operands and resulting in a single value.
    Change the order of evaluation in an expression. You do what's in the parentheses first.

    Adapted from: "Data Manipulation" by Kenneth Leroy Busbee, (Download for free at is licensed under CC BY 4.0 

    This page titled 4.5: Data Manipulation is shared under a CC BY-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Patrick McClanahan.