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16.1.2: Inheritance - Types of Inheritance

  • Page ID
    29125
  • Types of Inheritance in C++

    1. Single Inheritance: In single inheritance, a class is allowed to inherit from only one class. i.e. one sub class is inherited by one base class only.
      Syntax:
      class subclass_name : access_mode base_class
      {
        //body of subclass
      };
      
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      // C++ program to explain 
      // Single inheritance 
      #include <iostream> 
      using namespace std; 
      
      // base class 
      class Vehicle { 
      public: 
          Vehicle() 
          { 
          cout << "This is a Vehicle" << endl; 
          } 
      }; 
      
      // sub class derived from two base classes 
      class Car: public Vehicle{ 
      
      }; 
      
      // main function 
      int main() 
      { 
          // creating object of sub class will 
          // invoke the constructor of base classes 
          Car obj; 
          return 0; 
      } 
      

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      // C++ program to explain 

      // Single inheritance

      #include <iostream>

      using namespace std;

        

      // base class

      class Vehicle {

        public:

          Vehicle()

          {

            cout << "This is a Vehicle" << endl;

          }

      };

        

      // sub class derived from two base classes

      class Car: public Vehicle{

        

      };

        

      // main function

      int main()

      {   

          // creating object of sub class will

          // invoke the constructor of base classes

          Car obj;

          return 0;

      }

      Output:

      This is a vehicle
      
    2. Multiple Inheritance: Multiple Inheritance is a feature of C++ where a class can inherit from more than one classes. i.e one sub class is inherited from more than one base classes.
      Syntax:
      class subclass_name : access_mode base_class1, access_mode base_class2, ....
      {
        //body of subclass
      };
      

      Here, the number of base classes will be separated by a comma (‘, ‘) and access mode for every base class must be specified.

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      // C++ program to explain 

      // multiple inheritance

      #include <iostream>

      using namespace std;

        

      // first base class

      class Vehicle {

        public:

          Vehicle()

          {

            cout << "This is a Vehicle" << endl;

          }

      };

        

      // second base class

      class FourWheeler {

        public:

          FourWheeler()

          {

            cout << "This is a 4 wheeler Vehicle" << endl;

          }

      };

        

      // sub class derived from two base classes

      class Car: public Vehicle, public FourWheeler {

        

      };

        

      // main function

      int main()

      {   

          // creating object of sub class will

          // invoke the constructor of base classes

          Car obj;

          return 0;

      }

      Output:

      This is a Vehicle
      This is a 4 wheeler Vehicle
      

      Please visit this link to learn multiple inheritance in details.


    3. Multilevel Inheritance: In this type of inheritance, a derived class is created from another derived class.filter_none

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      // C++ program to implement 

      // Multilevel Inheritance

      #include <iostream>

      using namespace std;

        

      // base class

      class Vehicle 

      {

        public:

          Vehicle()

          {

            cout << "This is a Vehicle" << endl;

          }

      };

      class fourWheeler: public Vehicle

      public:

          fourWheeler()

          {

            cout<<"Objects with 4 wheels are vehicles"<<endl;

          }

      };

      // sub class derived from two base classes

      class Car: public fourWheeler{

         public:

           car()

           {

             cout<<"Car has 4 Wheels"<<endl;

           }

      };

        

      // main function

      int main()

      {   

          //creating object of sub class will

          //invoke the constructor of base classes

          Car obj;

          return 0;

      }

      output:

      This is a Vehicle
      Objects with 4 wheels are vehicles
      Car has 4 Wheels
      
    4. Hierarchical Inheritance: In this type of inheritance, more than one sub class is inherited from a single base class. i.e. more than one derived class is created from a single base class.filter_none

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      // C++ program to implement 

      // Hierarchical Inheritance

      #include <iostream>

      using namespace std;

        

      // base class

      class Vehicle 

      {

        public:

          Vehicle()

          {

            cout << "This is a Vehicle" << endl;

          }

      };

        

        

      // first sub class 

      class Car: public Vehicle

      {

        

      };

        

      // second sub class

      class Bus: public Vehicle

      {

            

      };

        

      // main function

      int main()

      {   

          // creating object of sub class will

          // invoke the constructor of base class

          Car obj1;

          Bus obj2;

          return 0;

      }

      Output:

      This is a Vehicle
      This is a Vehicle

    Adapted from: "Inheritance in C++" by Harsh AgarwalGeeks for Geeks is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

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