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12.6.1: Designing a Database for Optimal Query Performance

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    Databases are used every day, which makes it important to optimize the performance of database processing. Database processing can include adding, deleting, and modifying a database along with methods of retrieving data. Since databases have more traffic retrieving data from the database than maintenance, it is important to optimize query performance. Producing reports and ad hoc screens for users is the primary goal. The amount of work required to optimize query performance heavily relies on DBMS. Some DBMS give little control to the developer on how the database is designed and where the query can be processed. This can limit how optimized data reads and writes are in the database. However, other systems give complete control to the developer and require a lot of setup work. Since workloads often vary, it is difficult to reach peak performance from a database unless the workload is focused. “For example, the Teradata DBMS is highly turned for parallel processing in a data warehousing environment. In this case, rarely can a database designer or query writer improve on the capabilities of the DBMS to store and process data” (Hoffer, Venkataraman, & Topi, 2011). This situation is rare; thus, it is important as a database designer to consider ways to improve the processing capabilities of the database. 

    Since computer architecture has changed greatly over the years, the use of multiple processors in database servers has become standard. Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) architecture is commonly used in database servers to allow parallel processing. DBMS that use parallel query processing break up a query such that it can be processed in parallel by different processors. These partitions must be defined before the query by the database designer. An example of instructing Oracle to execute a query using parallel processing is below: 

    ALTER TABLE ORDER_T PARALLEL 3; (Hoffer, Venkataraman, & Topi, 2011) 

    Each table needs to be finely tuned to best support parallelism and can undergo multiple changes to find the best performance. Schumacher reported, “on a test in which the time to perform a query was cut in half with parallel processing compared to using a normal table scan. Because an index is a table, indexes can also be given the parallel structure, so that scans of an index are also faster.” Schumacher also reported an example of parallel processing reducing the time of creating an index from seven minutes to five seconds (Hoffer, Venkataraman, & Topi, 2011). Parallel processing not only improves the time of table scans but also can be used on joining tables, grouping query results, sorting, deleting, updating, and insertion. Oracle requires the number or virtual parallel database servers to be defined beforehand. Once the servers are defined, the processor will decide what is the best use of parallel processing for that specific command. 


    ParalleQuery.jpg
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Oracle Parallel Query. (Burleson Consulting, 2014 )

    Often the designer creating the query has information to better optimize the query that the query module in the DBMS does not. In most relational DBMs, the optimizer’s plan for processing the query can be known by the designer before actually running the query. This is done through the command EXPLAIN or EXPLAIN PLAIN, which display all the information about the optimizer’s plans to process the query. The query optimizer makes its decision on how to process the query by looking at data from each table such as average row length or the number or rows. You can submit multiple EXPLAIN commands with a query written in different ways to see if the optimizer predicts different performance. That then allows you to find the best performance and submit that for actual processing. With some DBMs you can force the optimizer to take different steps or use resources other than what the optimizer thinks is the best performance. The clause /**/ can be used to override what the query determines is the best way to process the query. 


    12.6.1: Designing a Database for Optimal Query Performance is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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