# 12.3: Retrieving an image over HTTP

In the above example, we retrieved a plain text file which had newlines in the file and we simply copied the data to the screen as the program ran. We can use a similar program to retrieve an image across using HTTP. Instead of copying the data to the screen as the program runs, we accumulate the data in a string, trim off the headers, and then save the image data to a file as follows:

Code $$\PageIndex{1}$$ (Python):

%%python3

import socket
import time

HOST = 'data.pr4e.org'
PORT = 80
mysock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
mysock.connect((HOST, PORT))
mysock.sendall(b'GET http://data.pr4e.org/cover3.jpg HTTP/1.0\\r\\n\\r\\n')
count = 0
picture = b''

while True:
data = mysock.recv(5120)
if (len(data) < 1): break
time.sleep(0.25)
count = count + len(data)
print(len(data), count)
picture = picture + data

mysock.close()

# Look for the end of the header (2 CRLF)
pos = picture.find(b\'\\r\\n\\r\\n\')
print(picture[:pos].decode())

# Skip past the header and save the picture data
picture = picture[pos+4:]
fhand = open('stuff.jpg', 'wb')
fhand.write(picture)
fhand.close()

# Code: http://www.py4e.com/code3/urljpeg.py



When the program runs it produces the following output:

$python urljpeg.py 2920 2920 1460 4380 1460 5840 1460 7300 ... 1460 62780 1460 64240 2920 67160 1460 68620 1681 70301 Header length 240 HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Sat, 02 Nov 2013 02:15:07 GMT Server: Apache Last-Modified: Sat, 02 Nov 2013 02:01:26 GMT ETag: "19c141-111a9-4ea280f8354b8" Accept-Ranges: bytes Content-Length: 70057 Connection: close Content-Type: image/jpeg You can see that for this url, the Content-Type header indicates that body of the document is an image (image/jpeg). Once the program completes, you can view the image data by opening the file stuff.jpg in an image viewer. As the program runs, you can see that we don't get 5120 characters each time we call the recv() method. We get as many characters as have been transferred across the network to us by the web server at the moment we call recv(). In this example, we either get 1460 or 2920 characters each time we request up to 5120 characters of data. Your results may be different depending on your network speed. Also note that on the last call to recv() we get 1681 bytes, which is the end of the stream, and in the next call to recv() we get a zero-length string that tells us that the server has called close() on its end of the socket and there is no more data forthcoming. We can slow down our successive recv() calls by uncommenting the call to time.sleep(). This way, we wait a quarter of a second after each call so that the server can "get ahead" of us and send more data to us before we call recv() again. With the delay, in place the program executes as follows: $ python urljpeg.py
1460 1460
5120 6580
5120 11700
...
5120 62900
5120 68020
2281 70301
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sat, 02 Nov 2013 02:22:04 GMT
Server: Apache
Last-Modified: Sat, 02 Nov 2013 02:01:26 GMT
ETag: "19c141-111a9-4ea280f8354b8"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 70057
Connection: close
Content-Type: image/jpeg

Now other than the first and last calls to recv(), we now get 5120 characters each time we ask for new data.

There is a buffer between the server making send() requests and our application making recv() requests. When we run the program with the delay in place, at some point the server might fill up the buffer in the socket and be forced to pause until our program starts to empty the buffer. The pausing of either the sending application or the receiving application is called "flow control".