14.12: Object-Oriented Programming (Summary)
- Page ID
This is a very quick introduction to object-oriented programming that focuses mainly on terminology and the syntax of defining and using objects. Let's quickly review the code that we looked at in the beginning of the chapter. At this point you should fully understand what is going on.
stuff = list() stuff.append('python') stuff.append('chuck') stuff.sort() print (stuff) print (stuff.__getitem__(0)) print (list.__getitem__(stuff,0)) # Code: http://www.py4e.com/code3/party1.py
The first line constructs a
list object. When Python creates the
list object, it calls the constructor method (named
__init__) to set up the internal data attributes that will be used to store the list data. Due to encapsulation we neither need to know, nor need to care about how these internal data attributes are arranged.
We are not passing any parameters to the constructor and when the constructor returns, we use the variable
stuff to point to the returned instance of the
The second and third lines are calling the
append method with one parameter to add a new item at the end of the list by updating the attributes within
stuff. Then in the fourth line, we call the
sort method with no parameters to sort the data within the
Then we print out the first item in the list using the square brackets which are a shortcut to calling the
__getitem__ method within the
stuff object. And this is equivalent to calling the
__getitem__ method in the
list class passing the
stuff object in as the first parameter and the position we are looking for as the second parameter.
At the end of the program the
stuff object is discarded but not before calling the destructor (named
__del__) so the object can clean up any loose ends as necessary.
Those are the basics and terminology of object oriented programming. There are many additional details as to how to best use object oriented approaches when developing large applications and libraries that are beyond the scope of this chapter.3