10.6.3: Navigation charts
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Figure 10.19: Phases in a flight.
Table 10.2: Navigation charts. Data retrieved from Annex 4 ICAO.
The navigation charts are essential for air navigation. Their characteristics are internationally standardized in different ICAO documents, such for instance, the Annex 4: Aeronautical charts. According to the flight rules applied (IFR or VFR), the phase and level of flight, the characteristics of such charts differ. A complete route of an aircraft flying between two airports can be divided in three main parts: origin, en-route, and destination. Also, origin can be divided into take-off and initial climb, and destination can be divided into approach and landing. Figure 10.19 shows an schematic representation of the phases of a typical flight. Table 10.2 show the existing navigation charts according to ICAO’s Annex 4.
Figure 10.20: En-Route upper navigation chart of the Iberic Peninsula.
The en-route phase is defined by a series of waypoints and airways (the already presented ATS routes). The upper en-route navigation chart of the Iberic Peninsula is given in Figure 10.20. However, airports can not be directly connected by airways. Terminal Maneuvering Areas (TMA) are defined to describe a designated area of controlled airspace surrounding an airport due to high volume of traffic. Operational constraints and arrival and departure procedures are defined inside an airport TMA.
Figure 10.21: Instrumental approximation chart: APP to Adolfo Suarez Madrid Barajas, Runway 32L.
A flight departing from an airport must follow a Standard Instrument Departure (SID) which defines a pathway from the runway to a waypoint or airway, so that the aircraft can join the en-route sector in a controlled manner. Before landing, an aircraft must follow two different procedures. It must follow first a Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR), which defines a pathway from a waypoint or airway to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF). Then, proceed from the IAF to runway following a final approach procedure. Figure 10.21 shows a final approach chart.
The reader is referred to the ANSP providers’ AIP for more information on navigation charts.15 For instance, AENA publishes its AIP in AIP AENA.16 The en route charts can be consulted at AIP AENA EN-Route.17 Airport charts can be consulted at AIP AENA Aerodromes.18
15. Notice that these documents are published in public access in the internet, but the ANSP holds the copyright on them, so they can not be published in this text book unless explicitly permitted.