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Engineering LibreTexts

2: Document Makeup

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  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you should be able to demonstrate:

    • the ability to create an HTML document structured to support CSS styling
    • the ability to create a CSS file that adapts styling based on device capabilities
    • the ability to create basic images using canvas
    • the ability to integrate audio and video to a page
    • the ability to utilize special device features
    • the ability to integrate external font styles

    Some tags in this chapter require exclude features from HTML5, and they may not fully compatible with your browsers. Please make sure your browsers are up-to-date. For your browsers' performance, visit

    • 2.1: Markup Languages
      Document markup is a notation method that defines how particular pieces of information are meant to be formatted. The term comes from the practice of marking up manuscripts to notate changes that need to be made. Some popular markup languages are hypertext markup language (HTML), extensible markup language (XML) and extensible hypertext markup language (XHTML). These were each created to fulfill particular needs in defining the layout and structure of the material.
    • 2.2: Creating HTML Files
      Before we can create our first web page, we need to create a file that our service will recognize as a web page.  In this chapter, we will learn different document types, and how to create a HTML document.
    • 2.3: Page Layout
      In order to add content to our page, we will set up our file with some basic structure. We will learn about tags, head, body, and some other important elements of a HTML page.
    • 2.4: Text Layout
      Web pages make no sense if there is no content on them. In this chapter, we will study about some HTML tags which allow you to show texts on the page.
    • 2.5: Navigation
      A feature found on almost every website is a navigation system for moving between pages. These are typically menus, where groups of common pages are created to give the site a hierarchical organization.
    • 2.6: Graphics
      Images are the greatest contributors to the visual appeal of your site and typically account for the majority of bandwidth used in loading your pages. By using a combination of image types we can balance quality against size to reduce our bandwidth needs and allow our site to be more flexible.
    • 2.7: Tables
      Tables are a method of formatting the content of your page and are very similar to the concept of a spreadsheet. In this chapter, we will learn about how to create tables in HTML.
    • 2.8: Forms
      Forms drive the internet. They are perhaps the most critical element in creating an interactive experience for your end users and allow you to take in inputs.
    • 2.9: Canvas
      The canvas element allows us to approach pages with greater control by drawing and creating SVG-style graphics on the page in real time with JavaScript and giving us the ability to animate and control the motion of our elements
    • 2.10: Media Support
      Native media support is probably one of the most well-known features of HTML5. With a short video or music, your webpage can be even better.
    • 2.11: Mobile Device Support
      Mobile devices are contributing to the majority of website views, and it is essential to make sure your pages are mobile-friendly.
    • 2.12: Tags to Avoid
      Now that we have focused on the new features of HTML5 and warned about the inefficient methods developers resorted to in the past, let us take a look at a few other tags and methods to avoid using in our code.
    • 2.13: Rule Structure
      CSS enables numbers of new possibles to the appearance of HTML from font to interaction, and it eases future maintenance. In this chapter, we will study some of the basic approaches of CSS stylesheet.
    • 2.14: Layout Formatting
      More than texts or images themselves, CSS can also be used to control the layout of the page such as margins or borders. You can even change the mouse cursor with a simple CSS script.
    • 2.15: Font and Text Decoration
      When we write texts, we started using HTML tags wherever we could to provide structure to our content with heading tags. We did this with the understanding that later we would redefine those tags so our headings looked how we wanted them to.
    • 2.16: Responsive Styling
      Not only to the users, your pages can also respond to many other factors such as screen size. Our last rule concept of “When” can be applied to responsive design.
    • 2.E: Document Makeup (Exercise)
      Activities and questions

    2: Document Makeup is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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