# Appendices

- Page ID
- 9409

- Appendix A1: Permittivity of Some Common Materials
- The values below are relative permittivity for a few materials that are commonly encountered in electrical engineering applications, and for which permittivity emerges as a consideration. Note that “relative permittivity” is sometimes referred to as dielectric constant.

- Appendix A2: Permeability of Some Common Materials
- The values below are relative permeability a few materials that are commonly encountered in electrical engineering applications, and for which μr is significantly different from 1 . These materials are predominantly ferromagnetic metals and (in the case of ferrites) materials containing significant ferromagnetic metal content. Nearly all other materials exhibit μr that is not significantly different from that of free space.

- Appendix A3: Conductivity of Some Common Materials
- The values below are conductivity σ for a few materials that are commonly encountered in electrical engineering applications, and for which conductivity emerges as a consideration. Conductivity may vary significantly as a function of frequency. The values below are representative of frequencies from a few kHz to a few GHz. Conductivity also varies as a function of temperature. In applications where precise values are required, primary references should account for frequency and temperature.

- Appendix B1: Mathematical Formulas - Trigonometry
- Key Trigonometric identities are tabulated.

- Appendix B2: Mathematical Formulas - Vector Operators
- This section contains a summary of vector operators expressed in each of the three major coordinate systems:

- Appendix B3: Mathematical Formulas - Vector Identities
- Key Vector Identities are summarized include the Divergence Theorem and Stokes' Theorem.

## Contributors

Ellingson, Steven W. (2018) Electromagnetics, Vol. 1. Blacksburg, VA: VT Publishing. https://doi.org/10.21061/electromagnetics-vol-1 Licensed with CC BY-SA 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0. Report adoption of this book here. If you are a professor reviewing, adopting, or adapting this textbook please help us understand a little more about your use by filling out this form.