# 10: Appendices

• 10.1: Permittivity of Some Common Materials
The values below are relative permittivity for a few materials that are commonly encountered in electrical engineering applications, and for which permittivity emerges as a consideration. Note that “relative permittivity” is sometimes referred to as dielectric constant.
• 10.2: Permeability of Some Common Materials
The values below are relative permeability  a few materials that are commonly encountered in electrical engineering applications, and for which μr is significantly different from 1 . These materials are predominantly ferromagnetic metals and (in the case of ferrites) materials containing significant ferromagnetic metal content. Nearly all other materials exhibit μr that is not significantly different from that of free space.
• 10.3: Conductivity of Some Common Materials
The values below are conductivity σ for a few materials that are commonly encountered in electrical engineering applications, and for which conductivity emerges as a consideration. Conductivity may vary significantly as a function of frequency. The values below are representative of frequencies from a few kHz to a few GHz. Conductivity also varies as a function of temperature. In applications where precise values are required, primary references should account for frequency and temperature.
• 10.4: Mathematical Formulas - Trigonometry
Key Trigonometric identities are tabulated.
• 10.5: Mathematical Formulas - Vector Operators
This section contains a summary of vector operators expressed in each of the three major coordinate systems:
• 10.6: Mathematical Formulas - Vector Identities
Key Vector Identities are summarized include the Divergence Theorem and Stokes' Theorem.
• 10.7: Physical Constants