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12.10: Summary

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    In this package, the theoretical background to phase diagrams has been shown, as well as a method for constructing part of a diagram. Explanation has been given of how to use a phase diagram, and how it applies to real systems, and to understanding solidification.

    It should now be appreciated that phase diagrams are a valuable resource in predicting behaviour of alloys during solidification, and the microstructures which will be produced.

    However, there should also be an understanding that in normal cooling conditions although phase diagrams are generally fairly accurate, they are not always exact, and if diffusion is slow, there may be unexpected results.

    Going further


    • Porter, D. A. and Easterling K, Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, 2nd edition, Routledge, 1992.
    • Smallman, R. E, Modern Physical Metallurgy, Butterworth, 1985.
    • John, V, Understanding Phase Diagrams, Macmillan,1974.


    • Alloys and their phase diagrams - including examples of Binary Isomorphous Alloy Systems
      An Adobe Acrobat file authored by Professor P.J.M. Monteiro at the University of California, Berkeley.
    • Solidification
      A MATTER module with storyboard by Professor Bill Clyne providing an in-depth look at processes involved in solidification.

    12.10: Summary is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS).

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