This TLP concerns the topic of crystal plasticity. Plasticity is defined as:
The deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
During plastic deformation, the total strain of a metal is the sum of the elastic and plastic strain. However, the elastic strain is typically less than 1%, which is much less than the plastic strain. This can be seen from the nearly vertical elastic region in the true stress-strain curve in Figure 1.
Crystals undergo work hardening when they are deformed plastically. Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, describes the increase of the stress level necessary to continue plastic deformation. It arises as mobile dislocations are impeded by jogs and Lomer locks as the crystals are deformed.
From Figure 1, it can be seen that the work hardening rate (the gradient of the true stress-strain curve) decreases progressively with increasing strain and eventually approaches a plateau. This is due to the competing effect between the generation of new dislocations (as more Frank-Read sources are operated), the resistance from jogs, locks and tangles, and the processes which allow them to be organised and to annihilate each other (climb and cross-slip).
This TLP explores the plasticity of crystals by first introducing some of the aspects of single crystals. These include the Frank-Read source, dislocation interactions, the formation of Lomer lock and jogs, and the process of climb and cross-slip. This will be followed by an example on the deformation of a single crystal, where the significance of these aspects in stage I and II is discussed. Finally, it will discuss the deformation of poly-crystals by focusing on grain boundary hardening.