Flight and navigation instruments layout
Most aircraft are equipped with a standard set of flight instruments which provide the pilot with information about the aircraft’s attitude, airspeed, and altitude.
Most aircraft built since the 50s have four of the flight instruments located in a standardized pattern called the T-arrangement, which has become throughout the years a standard. The attitude indicator is at the top center, airspeed indicator to the left, altimeter to the right, and heading indicator below the attitude indicator. The other two, turn indicator and vertical speed indicator, are usually found below the airspeed indicator and altimeter, respectively, but for these two there is no common standard. The magnetic compass will be above the instrument panel. In newer aircraft with electronic displays substituting conventional instruments, the layout of the displays conform to the basic T-arrangement. The basic T-arrangement can be observed in Figure 5.6 and Figure 5.9.
Power plant instruments layout
This instruments layout is less standardized and we will not go into detail.
Figure 5.10: Aircraft cockpit.