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Engineering LibreTexts

Book: Distillation Science (Coleman)

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    • Contributed by Larry Coleman
    • Engineering Consultant at Consultant on Demand

    This is a ten-part series of technical articles on Distillation Science, as is currently practiced on an industrial level. It is organized as it would be used for the process design of distillation columns, which may differ from the way it is introduced to students academically. As a part of distillation column design, these articles also involve the vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of binary systems, with potential extension to multi-component systems.

    • 1: Overview
      While chlorosilanes and their electronic impurities are used as recurring examples, the technology developed here has great application in other mildly polar and hydrogenated compounds, which are normally excluded from theoretical treatment in many texts
    • 2: Vapor Pressure
      This section deals with the pure component VP relationships commonly found in textbooks, as well as their limitations. This article lays the basis for subsequent articles.
    • 3: Critical Properties and Acentric Factor
      This modules deals with the tabulation of these properties for selected fluids based on globally collected data. Data analysis and validation are discussed, as well as estimation techniques for those fluids for which data is either poor or non-existent. Critical properties are used to convert temperature, pressure, and specific volume from conventional units used in both chemistry and chemical engineering, to the reduced form.
    • 4: New Vapor Pressure Equation
      This module shows how a new vapor pressure equation form allows practice of distillation applications at the elevated pressures more common to industry. The culmination of this article is a thermodynamically consistent equation form that is valid between the atmospheric boiling point and the critical point, and which allows evaluation of other required distillation properties such as saturated phase densities and latent heat of vaporization.
    • 5: Equation of State
      This module deals with the recommendations for best EOS, as well as the mathematical techniques for solving such non-intrinsic EOS equation forms. Part V, Equation of State explains why an Equation of State (EOS) is needed to evaluate the pure-component physical properties that are used in distillation science, reviews the various options and makes a recommendation. Also included are techniques for solving the EOS cubic equations and some work-arounds near the critical point.
    • 6: Fugacity
      This module deals with the departure of apparent pure-component vapor pressure in binary mixtures, as is commonly found in practical application of distillation science.
    • 7: Binary Interaction Parameters
      This module deals with the application and estimation of BIP’s, as commonly found in practical application of distillation science. Various BIP models will be reviewed along with some limited data and a recommended estimation technique given where data is lacking.
    • 8: VLE Analysis Methods
      This module discusses the recommended methodology used when data-collecting binary systems, in order to assure that systemic errors are minimized. This topic also deals with validation whenever data collection is done on reactive fluids, which can disproportionate or dimerize during study.
    • 9: Putting It All Together
      This module shows how to combine the components of the above distillation science articles in a practical application.
    • 10: Convergence Strategy
      This module illustrates how solutions are best obtained for additional fluids in non-intrinsic or nested-loop equation forms, such as the recommended vapor pressure equations. While this topic is more mathematical or computer-science oriented than chemistry, it is a necessary technique to understand when dealing with modern technology. No complex mathematics are required.