- Understand the basic principles of atomic force microscopy (AFM), including the different modes it can be used in.
- Understand how AFM can be used in materials science.
- Be aware of some of the problems that can be encountered, and how to overcome them.
Before You Start
You should have a basic understanding of the behaviour of piezoelectric materials to understand how the piezo-scanner works in AFM
- 3.3: Modes of Operation
- AFM has three differing modes of operation. These are contact mode, tapping mode and non-contact mode.