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Engineering LibreTexts

Semiconductors

  • Page ID
    358
  • Semiconductors are substances that only conduct electricity under certain conditions and include Silicon, Germanium, and sometimes tin. They are semiconductors that occur naturally and do not require any sort of chemical doping and can often be recognized by characteristic crystal lattice structures that they form.

    • Band Theory of Semiconductors
      When atoms come together to form a compound, their atom orbital energies mix to form molecular orbital energies. As more atoms begin to mix and more molecular orbitals are formed, it is expected that many of these energy levels will start to be very close to, or even completely degenerate, in energy. These energy levels are then said to form bands of energy.​​​​​​​
    • Extrinsic Semiconductors
      Semiconductors are materials that possess the unique ability to control the flow of their charge carriers, making them valuable in applications like cell phones, computers, and TVs. An extrinsic semiconductor is a material with impurities introduced into its crystal lattice. The goal of these impurities is to change the electrical properties of the material, specifically (increasing) its conductivity.
    • Fermi level
      The Fermi Level is the energy level which is occupied by the electron orbital at temperature equals 0 K. The level of occupancy determines the conductivity of different materials. For solid materials such as metals, the orbital occupancy can be calculated by making an approximation based on the crystalline structure. These orbitals, combined with the energy level, determine whether the material is an insulator, semi-conductor, or conductor. The orbitals are categorized according to its energy.
    • Intrinsic Semiconductors
      Intrinsic semiconductors are the bulk properties of the semiconductor material itself, not those of dopants or impurities. Silicon and germanium are the two most commonly used examples of intrinsic semiconductors, as they are elemental semiconductors and were some of the first widely studied and used semiconductors. The electronic structure of semiconductors are the foundation of their unique properties.
    • Intrinsic Semiconductors II
      Semiconductors are substances that only conduct electricity under certain conditions and include Silicon, Germanium, and sometimes tin. They are semiconductors that occur naturally and do not require any sort of chemical doping and can often be recognized by characteristic crystal lattice structures that they form.
    • Light Emitting Diodes
      Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are light sources made from semiconductor devices. LEDs are gradually becoming the most popular light sources used in households, cars, and public lighting. They are replacing incandescent bulbs because they are much more energy efficient and don't produce heat.
    • Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect-Transistor
    • Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Fundamentals
      The metal-oxide (SiO2)-semiconductor (Si) is the most common microelectronic structures nowadays. The two terminals of MOS-Capacitor consist of the main structures in MOS devices and it is the simplest structure of MOS devices. Therefore, it's essential to understand the mechanisms and characteristics of how MOS-C operates.
    • Metal-Semiconductors Contacts
      The metal-semiconductor (MS) contact is an important component in the performance of most semiconductor devices in the solid state. As the name implies, the MS junction is that a metal and a semiconductor material are contacted closely. Basically, there are two types of MS contacts that are widely used in semiconductor devices: Rectifying Schottky Diodes and Non-rectifying Ohmic contact
    • Nonideal PN Junction Diodes
      A p-n junction diode is a kind of semiconductor diode that made up of a joining p-type and n-type semiconducting layers. The current in the pn junction diode can only flow from one side to the other.
    • Plasmon Resonance
      Plasmon resonance is beginning to receive more recognition in the fields of chemistry, physics, and materials science due to the wide variety of possible applications including but not limited to optical sensing, data storage, light generation, biomedicine, and electronics. Because of their growing popularity, they have become a topic of more research in order to try to understand their properties and how to harness and control their potential uses.
    • Quantum Dots